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铁杉Tsuga chinensis

时间:2013-11-10 20:23来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 铁杉 学名( Scientific Name ): Tsuga chinensis (Franch.) Pritz. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 假花板、仙柏、铁林刺、刺柏 异名( Synonym ): Tsuga chinensis var. tchekiangens
中文名(Chinese Name):铁杉
学名(Scientific Name):Tsuga chinensis (Franch.) Pritz.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):假花板、仙柏、铁林刺、刺柏
异名(Synonym):Tsuga chinensis var. tchekiangensis (Flous) Cheng et L. K. Fu  Abies chinensis Franch.  Tsuga dumosa var. chinensis (Franch.) E. Pritz.  Tsuga tchekiangensis Flous  Tsuga chinensis subsp. formosana (Hayata) Silba  Tsuga chinensis subsp. tchekiangensis (Flous) Silba
科属(Family & Genus):松科Pinaceae铁杉属Tsuga
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达50米,胸径达1.6米;树皮暗深灰色,纵裂,成块状脱落;大枝平展,枝稍下垂,树冠塔形;冬芽卵圆形或圆球形,先端钝,芽鳞背部平圆或基部芽鳞具背脊;一年生枝细,淡黄色、淡褐黄色或淡灰黄色,叶枕凹槽内有短毛,二、三年生枝灰黄色、淡褐灰色或灰色。叶条形,排列成两列,长1.2-2.7厘米,宽2-3毫米,先端钝圆有凹缺,上面光绿色,下面淡绿色,中脉隆起无凹槽,气孔带灰绿色,边缘全缘(幼树叶的中上部边缘常有细锯齿),下面初有白粉,老则脱落,稀老叶背面亦有白粉;横切面上面及两端边缘皮下细胞一层不连续排列,下面中部一层。球果卵圆形或长卵圆形,长1.5-2.5厘米,径1.2-1.6厘米,具短梗;中部种鳞五边状卵形、近方形或近圆形, 稀短矩圆形,长0.9-1.2厘米,宽0.8-1.1厘米,上部圆或近于截形,边缘薄、微向内曲,基部两侧耳状,鳞背露出部分和边缘无毛,有光泽;苞鳞倒三角状楔形或斜方形,上部边缘有细缺齿,先端二裂;种子下表面有油点,连同种翅长7-9毫米,种翅上部较窄;子叶3-4枚,条形,长约1厘米,宽1-1.8毫米,先端钝,边缘全缘,上面中脉隆起,有散生白色气孔点,初生叶条形,长0.7-1.5厘米,宽1-1.5毫米,先端钝尖或尖上面平,无气孔线,下面中脉隆起,有两条白色气孔带,叶缘在1/3-1/2以上具齿毛状锯齿。花期4月,球果10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种,产于甘肃白龙江流域, 陕西南部、河南西部、湖北西部、四川东北部及岷江流域上游、大小金川流域、大渡河流域、青衣江流域、金沙江流域下游和贵州西北部海拔,1200-3200米地带。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 4 Page 40     
Tsuga chinensis (Franchet) E. Pritzel, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 217. 1900.
铁杉 tie shan | Pinaceae  | Tsuga
Trees to 50 m tall; trunk to 1.6 m d.b.h.; bark dark gray, longitudinally fissured, flaking; crown pyramidal; branchlets brown-yellow or grayish yellow initially, turning grayish yellow, gray, or brownish gray in 2nd or 3rd year, slender, pubescent; winter bud scales appressed or keeled at base of branchlets. Leaves pectinately arranged, linear, 1.2-2.7 cm × 2-3 mm, abaxial stomatal bands grayish green, margin entire, apex obtuse, entire or emarginate. Seed cones light green, maturing pale gray-yellow or pale brown, ovoid-globose to cylindric or obovoid-oblong, 1.5-4 × 1.2-2.5 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones densely arranged, square-orbicular, pentagonal-ovate, or compressed orbicular, 0.9-1.2 × 0.8-1.1 cm, apex rounded or nearly truncate. Bracts cuneate-obovate or obtriangular, apex erose. Seeds 7-9 mm including obliquely ovate wing. Pollination Apr, seed maturity Oct.
* Mountains, mixed forests, valleys, river basins; 1000-3500 m. Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, N Guizhou, W Henan, W Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang
The timber is used for construction, aircraft, furniture, and in mines. The bark is used for producing tannin, the trunk for resin, and the roots, trunk, and branches for aromatic oils.
 


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