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刚松Pinus rigida

时间:2013-11-10 20:18来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 刚松 学名( Scientific Name ): Pinus rigida Mill. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 硬叶松 异名( Synonym ): Pinus taeda var. rigida (Mill.) Aiton Pinus loddigesii Loudon Pinus
中文名(Chinese Name):刚松
学名(Scientific Name):Pinus rigida Mill.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):硬叶松
异名(Synonym):Pinus taeda var. rigida (Mill.) Aiton  Pinus loddigesii Loudon  Pinus rigida f. globosa Allard
科属(Family & Genus):松科Pinaceae松属Pinus
形态特征(Description):乔木,在原产地高达25米;幼树树皮灰色或暗灰色,大树树皮暗灰褐色或黑灰色,裂成鳞状块片,裂缝红褐色;树冠近球形;主干及枝通常有不定芽;枝条每年生长多轮;一年生枝红褐色,老枝灰色或灰黑色;冬芽红褐色,卵圆形或圆柱状长卵圆形,顶端尖,被较多的树脂。针叶3针一束,坚硬,长7-16厘米,径2毫米,先端尖;横切面三角形,多层皮下层细胞,在表皮层下呈倒三角状断续分布,树脂道5-8,中生,稀1-3个内生;叶鞘黄褐色至暗灰褐色。球果常3-5个聚生于小枝基部,圆锥状卵圆形,长5-8厘米或更长,成熟前绿色,熟时栗褐色.种鳞迟张开,常宿存树上达数年之久;种鳞的鳞盾强隆起,横脊显著,鳞脐隆起有长尖刺;种子倒卵圆形,长约4毫米,种翅长约1.3厘米。花期4-5月,球果第二年秋季成熟。
分布(Distribution):原产美国东部。我国旅顺、大连、熊岳、兴隆、青岛、富阳、南京等地引种栽培作庭园树。在东北地区生长较慢,在南京、富阳等地生长较快。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 4 Page 19     
Pinus rigida Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Pinus no. 10. 1768.
刚松 gang song | Pinaceae  | Pinus
Trees to 30 m tall; trunk straight or crooked, to 0.9 m d.b.h. in native range, usually with adventitious sprouts; bark red-brown, with deeply and irregularly oblong, flat, scaly ridges; crown rounded or irregular; 2nd-year branchlets orange-brown, aging darker brown, stout, mostly more than 5 mm wide, rough; winter buds red-brown, ovoid or ovoid-cylindric, resinous, scales fringed at margin. Needles 3(-5) per bundle, deep or pale yellow-green, twisted, 5-10(-15) cm × 1-1.5(-2) mm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, base with persistent sheath 0.9-1.2 cm. Seed cones often clustered, sessile or shortly pedunculate, dull brown or pale red-brown, conical or ovoid before opening, broadly ovoid with flat or slightly convex base when open, 3-9 cm, maturing in 2 years, dehiscent. Seed scales with dark red-brown border adaxially distally; apophyses rhombic, slightly raised, strongly cross keeled; umbo low pyramidal, with a slender, reflexed prickle. Seeds dark brown, mottled darker or nearly black, broadly obliquely obovoid-deltoid, 4-6 mm; wing 1.5-2 cm.
Cultivated. Fujian, Jiangsu (Nanjing Shi), Jiangxi (Lu Shan), Liaoning, Shandong (Qingdao Shi) [native to SE Canada, E United States]
 


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