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北美短叶松Pinus banksiana

时间:2018-06-28 12:47来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 北美短叶松 学名( Scientific Name ): Pinus banksiana Lamb. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 短叶松 异名( Synonym ): Pinus rupestris F. Michx. Pinus hudsonica Poir. Pinus sylv
中文名(Chinese Name):北美短叶松
学名(Scientific Name):Pinus banksiana Lamb.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):短叶松
异名(Synonym):Pinus rupestris F. Michx.  Pinus hudsonica Poir.  Pinus sylvestris var. divaricata Aiton  Pinus divaricata f. procumbens (J.Rousseau) B.Boivin  Pinus banksiana f. procumbens J.Rousseau
科属(Family & Genus):松科Pinaceae松属Pinus
形态特征(Description):乔木,在原产地高达25米,胸径60-80厘米,有时成灌木状;树皮暗褐色,裂成不规则的鳞状薄片脱落;枝近平展,树冠塔形;每年生长二至三轮枝条,小枝淡紫褐色或棕褐色;冬芽褐色,矩圆状卵圆形,被树脂。针叶2针一束,粗短,通常扭曲,长2-4厘米,径约2毫米,先端钝尖、两面有气孔线,边缘全缘;横切面扁半圆形,皮下层细胞二层,连续排列,树脂道通常2个,中生;叶鞘褐色,宿存2-3年后脱落或与叶同时脱落。球果直立或向下弯垂,近无梗, 窄圆锥状椭圆形,不对称,通常向内侧弯曲,长3-5厘米,径2-3厘米,成熟时淡绿黄色或淡褐黄色,宿存树上多年;种鳞薄,张开迟缓,鳞盾平或微隆起,常成多角状斜方形,横脊明显,鳞脐平或微凹,无刺;种子长3-4毫米,翅较长,长约为种子的三倍。
分布(Distribution):原产北美东北部。我国辽宁熊岳、抚顺,北京,山东青岛、蒙山东塔山,江苏南京,江西庐山及河南鸡公山等地均已引种栽种栽植作观赏树。生长缓慢。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 4 Page 21
Pinus banksiana Lambert, Descr. Pinus. 1: 7, plate 3. 1803.
北美短叶松 bei mei duan ye song | Pinaceae  | Pinus
Trees to 25 m tall; trunk straight or crooked, to 0.6 m d.b.h. in native range; bark orange- or red-brown, scaly; crown irregularly rounded or flat topped; branchlets orange-red or red-brown, aging gray-brown, slender, rough; winter buds red-brown, ovoid, resinous. Needles 2 per bundle, yellow-green, twisted, 2-5 cm × 1-1.5(-2) mm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, fine, base with semipersistent sheath 3-6 mm, margin finely serrulate. Seed cones upcurved, nearly sessile or shortly pedunculate, tan to pale brown or greenish yellow, ovoid when open, asymmetric, 3-5.5 cm, maturing in 2 years, then soon shedding seeds or often long serotinous and shedding seeds only with age or after fire. Apophyses mostly depressed but increasingly mamillate toward outer part, basal of cone; umbo depressed, sunken centrally, small, unarmed or with a small, reflexed apicula. Seeds brown or nearly black, compressed obovoid, oblique, 4-5 mm; wing 1-1.2 cm.
Cultivated. Beijing Shi, Heilongjiang (Harbin Shi), Henan (Jigong Shan), Jiangsu (Nanjing Shi), Jiangxi (Lu Shan), Liaoning, Shandong [native to N North America]
 



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