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山茶Camellia japonica

时间:2013-11-09 21:57来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):山茶 学名( Scientific Name ): Camellia japonica L. 英文名( English Common Name ): camellia 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 茶花 异名( Synonym ): Camellia sylvestris Berl. Camellia nakaii (Hayata) Hayata C
中文名(Chinese Name):山茶
学名(Scientific Name):Camellia japonica L.
英文名(English Common Name):camellia
别名(Chinese Common Name):茶花
异名(Synonym):Camellia sylvestris Berl.  Camellia nakaii (Hayata) Hayata  Camellia japonica var. macrocarpa Masam.  Camellia planipetala Lem.  Camellia florida Salisb.  Camellia hozanensis (Hayata) Hayata  Thea camellia Hoffmanns.  Thea nakaii Hayata  Camellia tsubakki Crantz  Thea japonica var. spontanea Makino  Thea japonica (L.) Baill.  Thea japonica var. hortensis Makino  Camellia hortensis Makino  Camellia kaepferia Reboul  Thea hozanensis Hayata  Camellia bonnardii Berl.  Camellia hayaoi Yanagita ex Kusaka  Camellia japonica f. ilicifolia Makino  Camellia japonica f. lancifolia H.Hara  Camellia japonica f. leucantha Makino ex H.Hara  Camellia japonica f. lilifolia Makino  Camellia japonica f. macrocarpa (Masam.) Tuyama  Camellia japonica f. otome Makino  Camellia japonica f. parviflora Makino  Camellia japonica f. polypetala Makino  Camellia japonica f. trifida Makino  Camellia japonica subsp. hortensis (Makino) Masam. & Yanagita  Camellia japonica var. concava Makino  Camellia japonica var. hexapetala Makino  Camellia japonica var. hortensis (Makino) Makino  Camellia japonica var. hozanensis (Hayata) Yamam.  Camellia bonnardi Berl.  Camellia japonica var. longifolia Nakai  Camellia japonica var. nakaii (Hayata) Yamam.  Camellia kaempferia Reboul  Camellia mutabilis Paxton  Kemelia japonica (L.) Raf.  Camellia tuckiana auct.  Camellia wabiske (Makino) Kitam.  Camellia japonica var. japonica  
科属Family & Genus):山茶科(Theaceae)山茶属
形态特征Description):灌木或小乔木,高9米,嫩枝无毛。叶革质,椭圆形,长5-10厘米,宽2.5-5厘米,先端略尖,或急短尖而有钝尖头,基部阔楔形,上面深绿色,干后发亮,无毛,下面浅绿色,无毛,侧脉7-8对,在上下两面均能见,边缘有相隔2-3.5厘米的细锯齿。叶柄长8-15毫米,无毛。花顶生,红色,无柄;苞片及萼片约10片,组成长约2.5-3厘米的杯状苞被,半圆形至圆形,长4-20毫米,外面有绢毛,脱落;花瓣6-7片,外侧2片近圆形,几离生,长2厘米,外面有毛,内侧5片基部连生约8毫米,倒卵圆形,长3-4.5厘米,无毛;雄蕊3轮,长约2.5-3厘米,外轮花丝基部连生,花丝管长1.5厘米,无毛;内轮雄蕊离生,稍短,子房无毛,花柱长2.5厘米,先端3裂。蒴果圆球形,直径2.5-3厘米,2-3室,每室有种子1-2个,3爿裂开,果爿厚木质。花期1-4月。
分布(Distribution):产四川、台湾、山东、江西等地,国内各地广泛栽培。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 12 Page 367, 403, 404, 405
Camellia japonica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 698. 1753.
山茶 shan cha| Theaceae  | Camellia
Shrubs or trees, 1.5-6(-11) m tall. Young branches grayish brown; current year branchlets purplish brown, glabrous. Petiole 5-10 mm, glabrous or adaxially pubescent; leaf blade broadly elliptic, elliptic, or oblong-elliptic, 5-10.5(-12) × 2.5-6(-7) cm, leathery, abaxially pale green and brown glandular punctate, adaxially dark green, both surfaces glabrous, midvein yellowish green, thick, and elevated on both surfaces, secondary veins 6-9 on each side of midvein, slender, and visible on both surfaces, base cuneate to broadly cuneate, margin serrulate, apex shortly acuminate and with an obtuse tip. Flowers axillary or subterminal, solitary or paired, 6-10 cm in diam., subsessile. Bracteoles and sepals ca. 9, green at anthesis; outer 4 bracteoles and sepals lunate to semiorbicular, 2-5 mm, glabrous, subglabrous, or grayish white velutinous; inner bracteoles and sepals green, persistent to young fruit, orbicular to broadly ovate, 1-2 cm, thinly leathery, both surfaces grayish white velutinous or subglabrous, margin membranous. Petals 6 or 7 but often more for cultivars, rose or white, obovate to broadly obovate, 3-4.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm, apex emarginate; inner 5 petals basally connate for 0.5-1.5 cm. Stamens 2.5-3.5 cm, glabrous; outer filament whorl basally connate for 1.5-2.5 cm. Gynoecium ca. 3 cm, glabrous. Ovary ovoid, 3-loculed; style ca. 2.8 cm, apically 3-lobed. Capsule globose, 2.5-4.5 cm in diam., 3-loculed with 1 or 2 seeds per locule; pericarp 5-8 mm thick when dry, woody. Seeds brown, semiglobose to globose, 1-2 cm in diam., glabrous. Fl. Jan-Mar, fr. Sep-Oct. 2n = 30, 45, 75.
Forests; 300-1100 m. Shandong, Taiwan, E Zhejiang [S Japan, S Korea].
 






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