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梅 Armeniaca mume

时间:2013-11-07 10:57来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 梅 学名( Scientific Name ): Armeniaca mume Sieb. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 干枝梅、乌梅、春梅 异名 ( Synonym ): Prunus mume var. formosana Kudo et Masam. Prunus mume
中文名(Chinese Name):
学名(Scientific Name):Armeniaca mume Sieb.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):干枝梅、乌梅、春梅
异名Synonym):Prunus mume var. formosana Kudo et Masam.  Prunus mume var. tonsa Rehder  Prunus anomala Koehne  Prunus mume Siebold et Zucc.  Prunus mume var. typica Maxim. 
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)杏属
形态特征(Description):小乔木,稀灌木,高4-10米;树皮浅灰色或带绿色,平滑;小枝绿色,光滑无毛。叶片卵形或椭圆形,长4-8厘米,宽2.5-5厘米,先端尾尖,基部宽楔形至圆形,叶边常具小锐锯齿,灰绿色,幼嫩时两面被短柔毛,成长时逐渐脱落,或仅下面脉腋间具短柔毛;叶柄长1-2厘米,幼时具毛,老时脱落,常有腺体。花单生或有时2朵同生于1芽内,直径2-2.5厘米,香味浓,先于叶开放;花梗短,长约1-3毫米,常无毛;花萼通常红褐色,但有些品种的花萼为绿色或绿紫色;萼筒宽钟形,无毛或有时被短柔毛;萼片卵形或近圆形,先端圆钝;花瓣倒卵形,白色至粉红色;雄蕊短或稍长于花瓣;子房密被柔毛,花柱短或稍长于雄蕊。果实近球形,直径2-3厘米,黄色或绿白色,被柔毛,味酸;果肉与核粘贴;核椭圆形,顶端圆形而有小突尖头,基部渐狭成楔形,两侧微扁,腹棱稍钝,腹面和背棱上均有明显纵沟,表面具蜂窝状孔穴。花期冬春季,果期5-6月(在华北果期延至7-8月)。2n=16,24。
分布(Distribution):梅原产我国南方,我国各地均有栽培,但以长江流域以南各省最多。日本和朝鲜也有。
用途(Use):已有三千多年的栽培历史,无论作观赏或果树均有许多品种。许多类型不但露地栽培供观赏,还可以栽为盆花,制作梅桩。鲜花可提取香精,花、叶、根和种仁均可入药。果实可食、盐渍或千制,或熏制成乌梅人药,有止咳、止泻、生津、止渴之效。梅又能抗根线虫危害,可作核果类果树的砧木。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 400
Armeniaca mume Siebold, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten. 12(1): 69. 1830.
梅 mei    | Rosaceae  | Armeniaca
Trees, rarely shrubs, 4–10 m tall. Bark grayish to tinged with green, smooth. First year branchlets green, smooth, glabrous or densely incanous. Winter buds purplish brown, ovoid, 3–6 mm, glabrous, apex acute. Petiole 1–2 cm, densely incanous or pubescent when young, often with nectaries; leaf blade ovate, ovate-elliptic, elliptic, obovate, or obovate-oblanceolate, 4–8 × 2.5–5 cm, grayish green, both surfaces pubescent when young, gradually glabrescent or only abaxially pubescent in vein axils with age, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margin usually acutely serrulate, apex caudate. Flowers solitary or 2 in a fascicle, opening before leaves, 2–2.5 cm in diam., strongly fragrant. Pedicel 1–10 mm, glabrous. Hypanthium usually reddish brown but green to greenish purple for some cultivated varieties, broadly campanulate, 2.5–4 mm, outside glabrous or sometimes pubescent. Sepals ovate to suborbicular, 3–5 mm, apex obtuse. Petals white or pink, obovate, 0.9–1.4 × 0.8–1.2 cm. Stamens shorter to slightly longer than petals. Ovary densely pubescent. Style shorter to slightly longer than stamens. Drupe yellow to greenish white, subglobose, 2–3 cm in diam., pubescent; mesocarp sour, adnate to endocarp; endocarp ellipsoid to subglobose, slightly compressed on both sides, ventral suture somewhat obtuse, distinctly longitudinally furrowed on ventral and dorsal sides, surface pitted, base cuneate, obtuse, or rounded, apex obtuse and abruptly mucronulate. Fl. winter to spring, fr. May–Jun (or Jul–Aug in N China).
Forested slopes, sparse forests, stream sides, slopes along trails, mountains, also commonly cultivated; 1700--3100 m. Native in W Sichuan and W Yunnan; cultivated throughout most of China particularly in areas S of the Chang Jiang [Japan, Korea, N Laos, N Vietnam].
In addition to the varieties listed below, there are many cultivated varieties selected for their flowers or fruit.
 








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