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山桃 Amygdalus davidiana

时间:2013-11-07 10:20来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 山桃 学名( Scientific Name ): Amygdalus davidiana (Carrire) de Vos ex Henry 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 山毛桃、野桃 异名( Synonym ): Persica davidiana Carrire Prunus p
中文名(Chinese Name):山桃
学名(Scientific Name):Amygdalus davidiana (Carrière) de Vos ex Henry
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):山毛桃、野桃
异名(Synonym):Persica davidiana Carrière  Prunus persica var. davidiana (Carrière) Maxim.  Prunus davidiana (Carrière) Franch.
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)桃属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高可达10米;树冠开展,树皮暗紫色,光滑;小枝细长,直立,幼时无毛,老时褐色。叶片卵状披针形,长5-13厘米,宽1.5-4厘米,先端渐尖,基部楔形,两面无毛,叶边具细锐锯齿;叶柄长1-2厘米,无毛,常具腺体。花单生,先于叶开放,直径2-3厘米;花梗极短或几无梗;花萼无毛;萼筒钟形;萼片卵形至卵状长圆形,紫色,先端圆钝;花瓣倒卵形或近圆形,长10-15毫米,宽8-12毫米,粉红色,先端圆钝,稀微凹;雄蕊多数,几与花瓣等长或稍短;子房被柔毛,花柱长于雄蕊或近等长。果实近球形,直径2.5-3.5厘米,淡黄色,外面密被短柔毛,果梗短而深入果洼;果肉薄而干,不可食,成熟时不开裂;核球形或近球形,两侧不压扁,顶端圆钝,基部截形,表面具纵、横沟纹和孔穴,与果肉分离。花期3-4月,果期7-8月。
分布(Distribution):产山东、河北、河南、山西、陕西、甘肃、四川、云南等地,生于海拔800-3200米山坡、山谷沟底或荒野疏林及灌丛内。
用途(Use):本种抗旱耐寒,又耐盐碱土壤,在华北地区主要作桃、梅、李等果树的砧木,也可供观赏。木材质硬而重,可作各种细工及手杖。果核可做玩具或念珠。种仁可榨油供食用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 394     
Amygdalus davidiana (Carriére) de Vos ex L. Henry, Rev. Hort. 1902: 290. 1902.
山桃 shan tao| Rosaceae  | Amygdalus
Trees to 10 m tall, crown ± spreading. Bark dark purplish red, smooth. Branchlets brown with age, slender, erect, glabrous when young. Winter buds reddish brown, ovoid, 2–5 mm, glabrous, apex acute. Petiole 1–2 cm, glabrous, usually with nectaries; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, 5–13 × 1.5–4 cm, both surfaces glabrous, base cuneate to rounded, margin acutely or obtusely serrate, apex acuminate. Flowers solitary, opening before leaves, 2–3 cm in diam. Pedicel very short to flower subsessile. Hypanthium campanulate, outside glabrous. Sepals ovate to ovate-oblong, purplish red, nearly as long as hypanthium, outside glabrous, apex obtuse. Petals pink, obovate to suborbicular, 1–1.5 × 0.8–1.2 cm, apex obtuse or rarely emarginate. Stamens many, nearly as long as petals. Ovary pubescent. Style longer or ± as long as stamens. Drupe yellowish, globose, subglobose, ellipsoid, or oblong, 2.5–3.5 cm in diam., densely pubescent; mesocarp thin, dry, not splitting when ripe; endocarp globose, subglobose, ellipsoid, or oblong, not compressed on both sides, surface longitudinally and transversely furrowed and pitted, separating from mesocarp, base truncate, apex obtuse. Fl. Mar–Apr, fr. Jul–Aug.
Forests, thickets, slopes, mountain valleys, waste fields; 800--3200 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.
 




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