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石楠Photinia serratifolia

时间:2013-11-06 13:58来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 石楠 学名( Scientific Name ): Photinia serratifolia (Desf.) Kalkm. 英文名( English Common Name ): Taiwanese photinia 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 千年红、石楠柴 异名( Synonym ): Photinia serrulata Lin
中文名(Chinese Name):石楠
学名(Scientific Name):Photinia serratifolia (Desf.) Kalkm.
英文名(English Common Name):Taiwanese photinia
别名(Chinese Common Name):千年红、石楠柴
异名(Synonym):Photinia serrulata Lindl.  Crataegus serratifolia Desf.  Photinia glabra var. chinensis Maxim.  Photinia pustulata S. Moore  Photinia serrulata var. aculeata Lawrence  Photinia serratifolia var. serratifolia
科属Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)石楠属
形态特征Description):常绿灌木或小乔木,高4-6米,有时可达12米;枝褐灰色,无毛;冬芽卵形,鳞片褐色,无毛。叶片革质,长椭圆形、长倒卵形或倒卵状椭圆形,长9-22厘米,宽3-6.5厘米,先端尾尖,基部圆形或宽楔形,边缘有疏生具腺细锯齿,近基部全缘,上面光亮,幼时中脉有绒毛,成熟后两面皆无毛,中脉显著,侧脉25-30对;叶柄粗壮,长2-4厘米,幼时有绒毛,以后无毛。复伞房花序顶生,直径10-16厘米;总花梗和花梗无毛,花梗长3-5毫米;花密生,直径6-8毫米;萼筒杯状,长约1毫米,无毛;萼片阔三角形,长约1毫米,先端急尖,无毛;花瓣白色,近圆形,直径3-4毫米,内外两面皆无毛;雄蕊20,外轮较花瓣长,内轮较花瓣短,花药带紫色;花柱2,有时为3,基部合生,柱头头状,子房顶端有柔毛。果实球形,直径5-6毫米,红色,后成褐紫色,有1粒种子;种子卵形,长2毫米,棕色,平滑。花期4-5月,果期10月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西、甘肃、河南、江苏、安徽、浙江、江西、湖南、湖北、福建、台湾、广东、广西、四川、云南、贵州,生海拔1000-2500米杂木林中。日本、印度尼西亚也有分布。
用途(Use):本种具圆形树冠,叶丛浓密,嫩叶红色,花白色、密生,冬季果实红色,鲜艳著目,是常见的栽培树种;木材坚密,可制车轮及器具柄;叶和根供药用为强壮剂、利尿剂,有镇静解热等作用;又可作土农药防治蚜虫,并对马铃薯病菌孢子发芽有抑制作用;种子榨油供制油漆、肥皂或润滑油用;可作枇杷的砧木,用石楠嫁接的枇杷寿命长,耐瘠薄土壤,生长强壮。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 125     
Photinia serratifolia (Desfontaines) Kalkman, Blumea. 21: 424. 1973.
石楠 shi nan| Rosaceae  | Photinia
Shrubs or trees, evergreen, 4–6(–12) m tall. Branchlets brown or reddish brown when young, brownish gray when old, glabrous; buds ovoid, 4–7 mm, apex acute to shortly acuminate; scales several, brown. Petiole 2–4 cm, pubescent when young, glabrescent; leaf blade narrowly elliptic, narrowly obovate, or obovate-elliptic, (6–)9–22 × 3–6.5 cm, leathery, veins 20–30 pairs, midvein raised abaxially and impressed adaxially, abaxially long pubescent along veins when young, both surfaces glabrous when mature, adaxially lustrous, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin sparsely or inconspicuously toothed or entire, apex acuminate. Compound corymbs terminal, 8–12 × 10–16 cm; rachis and pedicels glabrous, villous, or tomentose. Pedicel 3–5 mm. Flowers 6–8 mm in diam. Hypanthium cupular, 1–1.5 mm, abaxially glabrous. Sepals broadly triangular, 1–1.5 mm, apex acute or obtuse. Petals white, suborbicular, 3–4 mm in diam., glabrous or villous. Stamens 20, outer ones longer than inner ones. Ovary pilose apically; styles 2, sometimes 3, connate at base, not exceeding stamens; stigma capitate. Fruit red when immature, brownish purple when mature, globose, 5–6 mm in diam., with 1 seed; seeds brownish, ovoid, 2–2.5 mm, smooth. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Sep–Oct.
Mixed forests, roadsides, slopes, fields, mountain areas, sea shores; sea level to 2500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [S India, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines].




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