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桑 Morus alba

TAG标签: 桑科 Moraceae 桑属 Morus
时间:2013-10-17 16:46来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):桑 学名( Scientific Name ): Morus alba L. 英文名( English Common Name ): white mulberry 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Morus alba var. atropurpurea (Roxb.) Bureau Morus alba var. emargin
中文名(Chinese Name):桑
学名(Scientific Name):Morus alba L.
英文名(English Common Name):white mulberry
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Morus alba var. atropurpurea (Roxb.) Bureau  Morus alba var. emarginata Y. B. Wu  Morus alba var. bungeana Bureau  Morus atropurpurea Roxb.  Morus tatarica L.  Morus alba var. tatarica (L.) Ser.  Morus intermedia Perr.
科属(Family & Genus):桑科(Moraceae)桑属
形态特征(Description):乔木或为灌木,高3-10米或更高,胸径可达50厘米,树皮厚,灰色,具不规则浅纵裂;冬芽红褐色,卵形,芽鳞覆瓦状排列,灰褐色,有细毛;小枝有细毛。叶卵形或广卵形,长5-15厘米,宽5-12厘米,先端急尖、渐尖或圆钝,基部圆形至浅心形,边缘锯齿粗钝,有时叶为各种分裂,表面鲜绿色,无毛,背面沿脉有疏毛,脉腋有簇毛;叶柄长1.5-5.5厘米,具柔毛;托叶披针形,早落,外面密被细硬毛。花单性,腋生或生于芽鳞腋内,与叶同时生出;雄花序下垂,长2-3.5厘米,密被白色柔毛,雄花。花被片宽椭圆形,淡绿色。花丝在芽时内折,花药2室,球形至肾形,纵裂;雌花序长1-2厘米,被毛,总花梗长5-10毫米被柔毛,雌花无梗,花被片倒卵形,顶端圆钝,外面和边缘被毛,两侧紧抱子房,无花柱,柱头2裂,内面有乳头状突起。聚花果卵状椭圆形,长1-2.5厘米,成熟时红色或暗紫色。花期4-5月,果期5-8月。
分布(Distribution):本种原产我国中部和北部,现各地有栽培。朝鲜、日本、蒙古、中亚各国、俄罗斯、欧洲等地以及印度、越南均有栽培。
用途(Use):树皮纤维柔细,可作纺织原料、造纸原料;根皮、果实及枝条入药。叶为养蚕的主要饲料,亦作药用,并可作土农药。木材坚硬,可制家俱、乐器、雕刻等。桑椹可以酿酒,称桑子酒。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 23
Morus alba Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 986. 1753.
桑 sang| Moraceae  | Morus
Shrubs or trees, 3-10 m tall. Bark gray, shallowly furrowed. Branches finely hairy. Winter buds reddish brown, ovoid, finely hairy. Stipules lanceolate, 2-3.5 cm, densely covered with short pubescence. Petiole 1.5-5.5 cm, pubescent; leaf blade ovate to broadly ovate, irregularly lobed, 5-30 × 5-12 cm, abaxially sparsely pubescent along midvein or in tufts in axil of midvein and primary lateral veins, adaxially bright green and glabrous, base rounded to ± cordate, margin coarsely serrate to crenate, apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse. Male catkins pendulous, 2-3.5 cm, densely white hairy. Female catkins 1-2 cm, pubescent; peduncle 5-10 mm, pubescent. Male flowers: calyx lobes pale green, broadly elliptic; filaments inflexed in bud; anthers 2-loculed, globose to reniform. Female flowers: sessile; calyx lobes ovoid, ± compressed, with marginal hairs; ovary sessile, ovoid; style absent; stigmas with mastoidlike protuberance, branches divergent, papillose. Syncarp red when immature, blackish purple, purple, or greenish white when mature, ovoid, ellipsoid, or cylindric, 1-2.5 cm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May-Aug.
* Originally endemic to C and N China, now cultivated throughout China [widely cultivated throughout the world].
The leaves provide food for silkworms, the bark fiber is used for textiles and paper, and the bark is also used for medicine.






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