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大果榕 Ficus auriculata

TAG标签: 桑科 Moraceae Ficus 榕属
时间:2013-10-16 21:38来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):大果榕 学名( Scientific Name ): Ficus auriculata Lour. 英文名( English Common Name ): Roxburgh fig 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 馒头果、大无花果 异名( Synonym ): Covellia macrophylla Miq. Ficus hamilto
中文名(Chinese Name):大果榕
学名(Scientific Name):Ficus auriculata Lour.
英文名(English Common Name):Roxburgh fig
别名(Chinese Common Name):馒头果、大无花果
异名(Synonym):Covellia macrophylla Miq.  Ficus hamiltoniana Wall.  Ficus rotundifolia Roxb.  Ficus sclerocarpa Griff.
科属Family & Genus):桑科(Moraceae)榕属
形态特征Description):乔木或小乔木,高4-10米,胸径10-15厘米,榕冠广展。树皮灰褐色,粗糙,幼 枝被柔毛,直径10-15毫米,红褐色,中空。叶互生,厚纸质,广卵状心形,长15-55 厘米,宽15-27厘米,先端钝,具短尖,基部心形,稀圆形,边缘具整齐细锯齿,表面 无毛,仅于中脉及侧脉有微柔毛,背面多被开展短柔毛,基生侧脉5-7条,侧脉每边3- 4条,表面微下凹或平坦,背面突起;叶柄长5-8厘米,粗壮;托叶三角状卵形,长-1.5 2厘米,紫红色,外面被短柔毛。榕果簇生于树干基部或老茎短枝上,大而梨形或扁球形 至陀螺形,直径3-5 (-6)厘米,具明显的纵棱8-12条,幼时被白色短柔毛,成熟脱 落,红褐色,顶生苞片宽三角状卵形,4-5轮覆瓦状排列而成莲座状,基生苞片3枚,卵 状三角形;总梗长4-6厘米,粗壮,被柔毛;雄花,无柄,花被片3,匙形,薄膜质,透 明,雄蕊2,花药卵形,花丝长;瘿花花被片下部合生,上部3裂,微覆盖子房,花柱侧 生,被毛,柱头膨大;雌花,生于另一植株榕果内,有或无柄,花被片3裂,子房卵圆形, 花柱侧生,被毛,较瘿花花柱长。瘦果有粘液。花期8月至翌年3月,果期5-8月。
分布(Distribution):产海南、广西、云南、贵州、四川等,喜生于低山沟谷潮湿雨林中。印度、越南、巴基斯坦也有。
用途(Use):榕果成熟味甜可食。
引自中国植物志英文版:
FOC Vol. 5 Page 48
Ficus auriculata Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 2: 666. 1790.
大果榕 da guo rong | Moraceae  | Ficus
Trees, 4-10 m tall, crown elongated and wide, d.b.h. 10-15 cm; dioecious. Bark grayish brown, rough. Branchlets reddish brown, 1-1.5 cm thick, leafless in middle of stem, pubescent. Stipules reddish purple, triangular-ovate, 1.5-2 cm, adaxially shortly pubescent. Leaves alternate; petiole thick, 5-8 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, 15-55 × (10-)15-27 cm, thickly papery, abaxially with short spreading pubescence, adaxially glabrous or puberulent on midvein or secondary veins, base cordate to occasionally rounded, margin regularly shallowly dentate, apex obtuse and mucronate; basal lateral veins 4-6, secondary veins 3 or 4 on each side of midvein, abaxially prominent, and adaxially slightly impressed or flat. Figs on specialized leafless branchlets at base of trunk and main branches, reddish brown, pear-shaped, depressed globose, or top-shaped, with 8-12 conspicuous longitudinal ridges, 3-5(-6) cm in diam., white, shortly pubescent when young, glabrescent when mature; peduncle (2-)4-6 cm, thick, pubescent; involucral bracts triangular-ovate; apical bracts in 4 or 5 rows, broadly triangular-ovate, imbricate, rosulate. Male flowers: sessile; calyx lobes 3, transparent, spatulate, thinly membranous; stamens 2; filaments long; anthers ovoid. Gall flowers: calyx lobes 3, apically free, ± covering ovary; style lateral, hairy; stigma enlarged. Female flowers: pedicellate or sessile; calyx lobes 3; ovary ovoid; style lateral, longer than in gall flowers, with hairs. Achenes with adherent liquid. Fl. Aug-Mar, fr. May-Aug.
Forests in moist valleys; 100-1700(-2100) m. S Guangdong, Guangxi, SW Guizhou, Hainan, SW Sichuan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam].
The fruit are edible.




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