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构树Broussonetia papyrifera

时间:2013-10-16 21:35来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):构树 学名( Scientific Name ): Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) LHr. ex Vent. 英文名( English Common Name ): paper mulberry 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 楮树 异名( Synonym ): Morus papyrifera L. Smithiodend
中文名(Chinese Name):构树
学名(Scientific Name):Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent.
英文名(English Common Name):paper mulberry
别名(Chinese Common Name):楮树
异名(Synonym):Morus papyrifera L.  Smithiodendron artocarpioideum Hu  Papyrius papyrifera (L.) Kuntze  Papyrius papyriferus (L.) Kuntze  Broussonetia billardii Carruth.  Broussonetia cucullata Steud.  Broussonetia dissecta Bureau  Broussonetia elegans K.Koch  Broussonetia kasii Dippel  Broussonetia kazi Siebold ex Blume  Broussonetia maculata Steud.  Broussonetia nana Bureau  Broussonetia navifolia Steud.  Broussonetia papyrifera var. integrifolia Miq.  Broussonetia spathulata Steud.  Broussonetia tricolor K.Koch  Papyrius japonica Lam.  Papyrius polimorphus Cav.  Streblus cordatus Lour.  Trophis cordata Poir. 
科属Family & Genus):桑科(Moraceae)构属
形态特征Description):乔木,高10-20米;树皮暗灰色;小枝密生柔毛。叶螺旋状排列,广卵形至长椭圆 状卵形,长6-18厘米,宽5-9厘米,先端渐尖,基部心形,两侧常不相等,边缘具粗 锯齿,不分裂或3-5裂,小树之叶常有明显分裂,表面粗糙,疏生糙毛,背面密被绒毛, 基生叶脉三出,侧脉6-7对;叶柄长2.5-8厘米,密被糙毛;托叶大,卵形,狭渐尖, 长1.5-2厘米,宽0.8-1厘米。花雌雄异株;雄花序为柔荑花序,粗壮,长3-8厘米, 苞片披针形,被毛,花被4裂,裂片三角状卵形,被毛,雄蕊4,花药近球形,退化雌蕊 小;雌花序球形头状,苞片棍棒状,顶端被毛,花被管状,顶端与花柱紧贴,子房卵圆形, 柱头线形,被毛。聚花果直径1.5-3厘米,成熟时橙红色,肉质;瘦果具与等长的柄, 表面有小瘤,龙骨双层,外果皮壳质。花期4-5月,果期6-7月。
分布(Distribution):广泛分布于我国华北、华中、华南、西南、西北各省区,尤其是南方地区极为常见。越南和日本也有。
用途(Use):本种韧皮纤维可作造纸材料,楮实子及根、皮可供药用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 26
Broussonetia papyrifera (Linnaeus) L’Héritier ex Ventenat, Tabl. Règn. Vég. 3: 547. 1799.
构树 gou shu| Moraceae  | Broussonetia
Morus papyrifera Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 986. 1753; Smithiodendron artocarpioideum Hu.
Trees 10-20 m tall, flowers always produced on leafy stems; dioecious. Bark dark gray. Branchlets densely pubescent. Stipules ovate, 1.5-2 × 0.8-1 cm, apex attenuate. Leaves spirally arranged; petiole 2.3-8 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate to narrowly elliptic-ovate, simple or 3-5-lobed on young trees, 6-18 × 5-9 cm, abaxially densely pubescent but veins with coarser hairs, adaxially scabridulous and sparsely pubescent, base cordate and asymmetric, margin coarsely serrate, apex acuminate; secondary veins 6 or 7 on each side of midvein. Male inflorescences long spicate, 3-8 cm; bracts lanceolate, pubescent. Female inflorescences globose; bracts clavate, apically pubescent. Male flowers: calyx 4-lobed, lobes triangular-ovate and pubescent; anthers globose. Female flowers: calyx pipelike, lobes apically connate with style; ovary ovoid; stigma linear, pubescent. Syncarp orange-red when mature, 1.5-3 cm in diam., mostly pubescent with scattered stout and ± barbed hairs, fleshy. Drupelets equal in length to peduncle, with 2 rows of small verruca; exocarp shell-like. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Jun-Jul.
Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam; Pacific Islands].
The bark fibers are used for making paper, the wood is used for furniture, and the leaves, fruit, and bark are used medicinally.








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