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大花田菁Sesbania grandiflora

时间:2018-08-14 07:32来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):大花田菁 学名( Scientific Name ): Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir. 英文名( English Common Name ): vegetable hummingbird 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 木田菁 异名( Synonym ): Aeschynomene grandiflora (L.)
中文名(Chinese Name):大花田菁
学名(Scientific Name):Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir.
英文名(English Common Name):vegetable hummingbird
别名(Chinese Common Name):木田菁
异名(Synonym):Aeschynomene grandiflora (L.) L.  Agati grandiflora (L.) Desv.  Sesban grandiflorus (L.) Poir.  Emerus grandiflorus (L.) Kuntze  Resupinaria grandiflora (L.) Raf.  Dolichos arboreus Forssk.  Coronilla coccinea (L.f.)Willd.  Agati coccinea (L.f.)Desv.  Aeschynomene coccinea L.f.  Sesbania coccinea (L.f.)Pers.  Sesban grandiflora (L.)Poir.  Sesban coccinea (L.f.)Poir.  Agati grandiflora var. albiflora Wight & Arn.  Agati grandiflora var. coccinea (L.f.)Wight & Arn.  Dolichos arborescens G. Don
科属Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae田菁属
形态特征Description):小乔木,高4-10米,胸径达25厘米。枝斜展,圆柱形,叶痕及托叶痕明显。羽状复叶,长20-40厘米;叶轴圆柱,幼时密被毛,后变无毛;托叶斜卵状披针形。长达8毫米,早落;小叶10-30对,长圆形至长椭圆形,长2-5厘米,宽8-16毫米,叶轴中部小叶较两端者大,先端圆钝至微凹,有小突尖,基部圆形至阔楔形,两面密布紫褐色腺点或无,幼时两面被绢状伏毛,后变无毛,侧脉7-8对,不明显;小叶柄长1-2毫米;小托叶针状。总状花序长4-7厘米,下垂,具2-4花;苞片、小苞片卵形至卵状披针形,长7-10毫米,两面均被柔毛,早落;花大,长7-10厘米,在花蕾时显著呈镰状弯曲;花梗长1-2厘米,密被柔毛;花萼绿色,有时具斑点,钟状,长1.8-2.9厘米,口部直径1.5-2厘米,常2齿,浅二唇形至近截形,除萼齿先端及内缘被毛外,余处无毛;花冠白色、粉红色至玫瑰红色,旗瓣长圆状倒卵形至阔卵形,长5-7.5厘米,宽3.5-5厘米,先端微凹,基部近心形,柄长约1.6厘米,无胼胝体,开花时反折,翼瓣镰状长卵形,不对称,长约5厘米,宽约2厘米,先端钝,柄长约2厘米;龙骨瓣弯曲,长约5厘米,下缘连合成舟状,先端约1/4-1/3分离,钝圆,瓣柄分离,长约2厘米;雄蕊二体,对旗瓣的1枚分离,长约9毫米,花药线形,长4-5毫米,背着;雌蕊线形,长约8厘米,扁平,镰状弯曲,无毛,具子房柄,柱头稍膨大。荚果线形,稍弯曲,下垂,长20-60厘米,宽7-8毫米,厚约8毫米,先端渐狭成喙,长3-4厘米,果颈长约5厘米,熟时缝线处有棱,开裂,种子红褐色,稍有光泽,椭圆形至近肾形,肿胀,稍扁,长约6毫米,宽3-4厘米,种脐圆形,微凹。花果期9月至翌年4月。
分布(Distribution):分布于巴基斯坦、印度、孟加拉、中南半岛、菲律宾、毛里求斯。台湾、广东、广西、云南有栽培。
用途(Use):花大美丽,供观赏;叶、花、嫩可食用;树皮入药为收敛剂;内皮可提取优质纤维。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 313, 314
Sesbania grandiflora (Linnaeus) Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2: 316. 1807.
大花田菁 da hua tian jing | Fabaceae  | Sesbania
Robinia grandiflora Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 722. 1753; Resu­pinaria grandiflora (Linnaeus) Rafinesque.
Trees, 4-10 m tall, d.b.h. to 25 cm. Branches terete, leaf scars and stipule scars conspicuous. Stipules obliquely lanceo­late, to 8 mm, caducous. Leaves 20-40 cm, 20-60-foliolate; ra­chis terete, densely appressed pubescent when young, glabres­cent; petiolules 1-2 mm; stipels acerose; leaflet blades oblong, 2-5 × 0.8-1.6 cm, smaller at both ends of rachis than in middle, both surfaces with or without dense appressed purplish brown glands and appressed villous but glabrescent, secondary veins 7 or 8 on each side of midvein but inconspicuous, base rounded to broadly cuneate, apex obtuse to retuse and with a mucro. Ra­cemes 4-7 cm, pendulous, 2-4-flowered; bract and bracteoles ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 7-10 mm, caducous, both surfaces appressed pubescent. Flowers 7-10 cm, conspicuously falcately curved in bud. Pedicel 1-2 cm, densely appressed pilose. Calyx green, campanulate, 1.8-2.9 × 1.5-2 cm, sometimes with dots, often sub-bilabiate to subtruncate with adaxial 2 teeth connate, outside glabrous except for teeth apex, inside with appressed hairs. Corolla white, pink, or rosy; standard oblong-obovate to broadly ovate, 5-7.5 × 3.5-5 cm, reflexed at anthesis, callus absent, claw ca. 1.6 cm, base subcordate, apex retuse; wings fal­cately long ovate, asymmetric, ca. 5 × 2 cm, claw ca. 2 cm, apex obtuse; keel curved, ca. 5 cm, claw ca. 2 cm, limbs with basal abaxial edges connate, apical 1/4-1/3 free, apex obtuse. Stamens ca. 9 mm; anthers linear, 4-5 mm, dorsifixed. Pistil linear, ca. 8 cm, compressed, falcately curved, glabrous; ovary stipitate; stigma slightly turgid. Legume linear, slightly curved, nodding, 20-60 cm × 7-8 mm, ca. 8 mm thick, dehiscent, car­popodium ca. 5 cm, suture angulate at maturity, apex tapering into a 3-4 cm beak. Seeds reddish brown, ellipsoid to subreni­form, ca. 6 × 3-4 mm, slightly compressed, turgid, slightly glossy; hilum rounded, retuse. Fl. and fr. Sep-Apr. 2n = 24.
Cultivated in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, and Yunnan [probably native to Indonesia and Malaysia].
This species is cultivated throughout the tropics. The flowers are large and beautiful, and the species is grown as an ornamental. The young leaves and flowers are edible, and the bark is used medicinally.






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