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刺槐Robinia pseudoacacia

时间:2018-08-14 07:35来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):刺槐 学名( Scientific Name ): Robinia pseudoacacia L. 英文名( English Common Name ): black locust 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 洋槐 异名( Synonym ): Robinia pringlei Rose Robinia pseudoacacia f. oswald
中文名(Chinese Name):刺槐
学名(Scientific Name):Robinia pseudoacacia L.
英文名(English Common Name):black locust
别名(Chinese Common Name):洋槐
异名(Synonym):Robinia pringlei Rose  Robinia pseudoacacia f. oswaldiae Oswald  Robinia pseudacacia L.  Robinia pseudoacacia var. rectissima Raber
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae刺槐属
形态特征(Description):落叶乔木,高10-25米;树皮灰褐色至黑褐色,浅裂至深纵裂,稀光滑。小枝灰褐色,幼时有棱脊,微被毛,后无毛;具托叶刺,长达2厘米;冬芽小,被毛。羽状复叶长10-25(-40)厘米;叶轴上面具沟槽;小叶2-12对,常对生,椭圆形、长椭圆形或卵形,长2-5厘米,宽1.5-2.2厘米,先端圆,微凹,具小尖头,基部圆至阔楔形,全缘,上面绿色,下面灰绿色,幼时被短柔毛,后变无毛;小叶柄长1-3毫米;小托叶针芒状,总状花序花序腋生,长10-20厘米,下垂,花多数,芳香;苞片早落;花梗长7-8毫米;花萼斜钟状,长7-9毫米,萼齿5,三角形至卵状三角形,密被柔毛;花冠白色,各瓣均具瓣柄,旗瓣近圆形,长16毫米,宽约19毫米,先端凹缺,基部圆,反折,内有黄斑,翼瓣斜倒卵形,与旗瓣几等长,长约16毫米,基部一侧具圆耳,龙骨瓣镰状,三角形,与翼瓣等长或稍短,前缘合生,先端钝尖;雄蕊二体,对旗瓣的1枚分离;子房线形,长约1.2厘米,无毛,柄长2-3毫米,花柱钻形,长约8毫米,上弯,顶端具毛,柱头顶生。荚果褐色,或具红褐色斑纹,线状长圆形,长5-12厘米,宽1-1.3 (-1.7)厘米,扁平,先端上弯,具尖头,果颈短,沿腹缝线具狭翅;花萼宿存,有种子2-15粒;种子褐色至黑褐色,微具光泽,有时具斑纹,近肾形,长5-6毫米,宽约3毫米,种脐圆形,偏于一端。花期4-6月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):原产美国东部,现全国各地广泛栽植。
用途(Use):材质硬重,抗腐耐磨,宜作枕木、车辆、建筑、矿柱等多种用材;生长快,萌芽力强,是速生薪炭林树种;又是优良的蜜源植物。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 320
Robinia pseudoacacia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 722. 1753.
刺槐 ci huai | Fabaceae  | Robinia
Robinia pseudoacacia var. inermis Candolle; R. pseudo­acacia var. pyramidalis (Pepin) C. K. Schneider; R. pseudo­acacia var. umbraculifera Candolle; R. pyramidalis Pepin.
Trees, 10-25 m tall, deciduous. Bark gray-brown to dark brown, longitudinally fissured, rarely smooth. Branchlets gray-brown, sparsely hairy, glabrescent; stipulate spines up to 2 cm; winter buds small, with hairs. Leaves 10-25(-40) cm; rachis adaxially grooved; petiolule 1-3 mm; stipel acicular; leaflets 2-12 pairs, usually opposite or subopposite; leaflet blades oblong, elliptic, or ovate, 2-5 × 1.5-2.2 cm, abaxially grayish green and with appressed pubescence when young but glabrescent, adax­ially green, base rounded to broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex rounded, retuse, and apiculate. Racemes axillary, 10-20 cm, pendulous, many flowered, fragrant; bracts caducous. Pedi­cel 7-8 mm. Calyx obliquely campanulate, 7-9 mm; teeth 5, triangular to ovate-triangular, densely appressed pubescent. Co­rolla white, stipitate; standard suborbicular, ca. 1.6 × 1.9 cm, re­flexed, inside with yellow spots, base rounded, apex with a sinus; wings obliquely obovate, subequal to standard, ca. 16 mm, one lateral auriculate rounded; keel falcate, triangular, equal to wings or slightly short, connate at leading edge, obtuse. Stamens diadelphous, one opposite to standard free. Ovary line­ar, ca. 1.2 cm, glabrous; stalk 2-3 mm; style subulate, ca. 8 mm, apically curved, apex piliferous; stigma terminal. Legume brown or with reddish brown stripes, linear-oblong, 5-12 × 1-1.3(-1.7) cm, compressed, apex volute and mucronate, carpo­podium short, narrow wings along ventral suture; calyx persis­tent, 2-15-seeded. Seeds brown to dark brown, slightly glossy, sometimes with stripes, subreniform, 5-6 × ca. 3 mm; hilum rounded, oblique to one end. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 20, 22.
Cultivated in all of China except Hainan and Xizang [native to E North America; cultivated and sometimes naturalized in many parts of the world].







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