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水黄皮Millettia pinnata

时间:2018-08-14 07:43来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):水黄皮 学名( Scientific Name ): Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi 英文名( English Common Name ): pongame oiltree 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 水流豆、野豆 异名( Synonym ): Cajum pinnatum (L.) Kuntze Pon
中文名(Chinese Name):水黄皮
学名(Scientific Name):Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi
英文名(English Common Name):pongame oiltree
别名(Chinese Common Name):水流豆、野豆
异名(Synonym):Cajum pinnatum (L.) Kuntze  Pongamia glabra Vent.  Pterocarpus flavus Lour.  Pongamia xerocarpa Hassk.  Pongamia mitis (L.)Kurz  Millettia pinnata (L.)Panigrahi  Millettia novo-guineensis Kaneh. & Hatus.  Galedupa pungum J.G.Gmel.  Galedupa pinnata (L.)Taub.  Galedupa indica Lam.  Derris indica (Lam.)Benn.  Pongamia glabra var. xerocarpa (Hassk.)Prain  Pongamia mitis var. xerocarpa (Hassk.)Merr.  Pongamia pinnata var. xerocarpa (Hassk.)Alston 
科属Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae水黄皮属
形态特征Description):乔木,高8-15米。嫩枝通常无毛,有时稍被微柔毛,老枝密生灰白色小皮孔。羽状复叶长20-25厘米;小叶2-3对,近革质,卵形,阔椭圆形至长椭圆形,长5-10厘米,宽4-8厘米,先端短渐尖或圆形,基部宽楔形、圆形或近截形;小叶柄长6-8毫米。总状花序腋生,长15-20厘米,通常2朵花簇生于花序总轴的节上;花梗长5-8毫米,在花萼下有卵形的小苞片2枚;花萼长约3毫米,萼齿不明显,外面略被锈色短柔毛,边缘尤密;花冠白色或粉红色,长12-14毫米,各瓣均具柄,旗瓣背面被丝毛,边缘内卷,龙骨瓣略弯曲。荚果长4-5厘米,宽1.5-2.5厘米,表面有不甚明显的小疣凸,顶端有微弯曲的短喙,不开裂,沿缝线处无隆起的边或翅,有种子1粒;种子肾形。花期5-6月,果期8-10月。
分布(Distribution):产福建、广东、海南。生于溪边、塘边及海边潮汐能到达的地方。印度、斯里兰卡、马来西亚、澳大利亚、波利尼西亚也有。
用途(Use):木材纹理致密美丽,可制作各种器具;种子油可作燃料;全株入药,可作催吐剂和杀虫剂;沿海地区可作堤岸护林和行道树。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 188
Pongamia pinnata (Linnaeus) Merrill, Interpr. Herb. Am­boin. 271. 1917.
水黄皮 shui huang pi | Fabaceae  | Pongamia
Cytisus pinnatus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 741. 1753; Derris indica (Lamarck) Bennet; Galedupa indica Lamarck; G. pin­nata (Linnaeus) Taubert; Millettia pinnata (Linnaeus) Pani­grahi; Pongamia glabra Ventenat; P. mitis (Linnaeus) Kurz; Robinia mitis Linnaeus.
Trees, 8-15 m tall. Branchlets sometimes tomentose, gla­brescent, with dense minute cinereous lenticels. Leaves 5- or 7-foliolate; rachis 20-26 cm, including petiole 5-6 cm; petiolules 6-8 mm; leaflet blades ovate, broadly elliptic, or oblong, 5-10 × 4-8 cm, leathery, base rounded, broadly cuneate, or truncate, apex rounded to acuminate. Inflorescences axillary, racemose, 15-20 cm, rachis nodes usually with 2 flowers. Pedicel 5-8 mm; bracteoles 2, inserted at base of calyx, ovate. Calyx campanulate to calathiform, ca. 3 mm, outside sparsely yellowish pubescent; teeth obscure. Corolla white or pink, 1.2-1.4 cm; standard orbicular, outside thinly sericeous, base auriculate, claw 2-callose; wings oblong, oblique, base auriculate; keels falcate, apically adherent, apex truncate. Stamens 10, vexillary stamen distinct, others connate; anthers basifixed. Ovary sub­sessile, with 2 ovules; style inflexed, glabrous; stigma capitate. Legume ellipsoid to oblong, flat, 4-5 × 1.5-2.5 cm, indehiscent, covered with obscure warts, apex shortly beaked. Seed reni­form. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 22.
Coastal areas along beaches or riverbanks, thickets; near sea level. Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan [Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; C Africa, Australia, Central America, Pacific islands].
Pongamia pinnata is represented in China by the typical variety. Another variety, Pongamia pinnata var. xerocarpa (Hasskarl) Alston, occurs in S and SE Asia.




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