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刺桐Erythrina variegata

时间:2018-08-14 07:48来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):刺桐 学名( Scientific Name ): Erythrina variegata Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 海桐 异名( Synonym ): Erythrina corallodendron var. orientalis L. Erythrina loureiri
中文名(Chinese Name):刺桐
学名(Scientific Name): Erythrina variegata Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):海桐
异名(Synonym):Erythrina corallodendron var. orientalis L.  Erythrina loureiri G. Don  Erythrina variegata var. orientalis (L.) Merr.  Tetradapa javanorum Osbeck  Gelala litorea Rumph.  Erythrina boninensis Tuyama  Corallodendron spathaceum (DC.)Kuntze  Corallodendron orientale (L.)Kuntze  Erythrina phlebocarpa Bailey  Erythrina parcellii W.Bull  Erythrina spathacea DC.  Erythrina rostrata Ridl.  Erythrina parcelli hort.  Erythrina marmorata Planch.  Erythrina divaricata DC.  Erythrina lobulata Miq.  Corallodendron divaricatum (Moc. & Sesse)Kuntze  Chirocalyx pictus Walp.  Chirocalyx indicus Walp.  Chirocalyx divaricatus Walp.  Chirocalyx candolleanus Walp.  Erythrina loureirii G.Don  Erythrina loueiri G.Don  Erythrina indica var. fastigiata Guill.  Erythrina indica var. orientalis (L.)Merr.  Erythrina indica var. picta B. & M.  Erythrina variegata f. alba Maheshw.  Erythrina variegata f. marmorata Maheshw.  Erythrina variegata f. mysorensis Maheshw.  Erythrina variegata f. orientalis Maheshw.  Erythrina variegata f. parcellii Maheshw.  Erythrina variegata f. picta (L.) Maheshw. 
科属Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae刺桐属
形态特征Description):大乔木,高可达20米。树皮灰褐色,枝有明显叶痕及短圆锥形的黑色直刺,髓部疏松,颓废部分成空腔。羽状复叶具3小叶,常密集枝端;托叶披针形,早落;叶柄长10-15厘米,通常无刺;小叶膜质,宽卵形或菱状卵形,长宽15-30厘米,先端渐尖而钝,基部宽楔形或截形;基脉3条,侧脉5对;小叶柄基部有一对腺体状的托叶。总状花序顶生,长10-16厘米,上有密集、成对着生的花;总花梗木质,粗壮,长7-10厘米,花梗长约1厘米,具短绒毛;花萼佛焰苞状,长2-3厘米,口部偏斜,一边开裂;花冠红色,长6-7毫米,旗瓣椭圆形,长5-6厘米,宽约2.5厘米,先端圆,瓣柄短;翼瓣与龙骨瓣近等长;龙骨瓣2片离生,雄蕊10,单体;子房被微柔毛;花柱无毛。荚果黑色,肥厚,种子间略缢缩,长15-30厘米,宽2-3厘米,稍弯曲,先端不育;种子1-8颗,肾形,长约1.5厘米,宽约1厘米,暗红色。花期3月,果期8月。
分布(Distribution):产台湾、福建、广东、广西等省区。常见于树旁或近海溪边,或栽于公园。原产印度至大洋洲海岸林中,内陆亦多有栽植。马来西亚、印度尼西亚、柬埔寨、老挝、越南亦有分布。
用途(Use):花美丽,可栽作观赏树木。本种生长较迅速,可栽作胡椒的支柱。
 
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 238, 239
Erythrina variegata Linnaeus, Herb. Amboin. 10. 1754.
刺桐 ci tong| Fabaceae  | Erythrina
Corallodendron orientale (Linnaeus) Kuntze; Erythrina corallodendron Linnaeus var. orientalis Linnaeus; E. indica Lamarck; E. loureiroi G. Don ["loureiri"]; E. orientalis (Lin­naeus) Murray; E. variegata var. orientalis (Linnaeus) Merrill.
Trees, up to 20 m tall. Bark dark brown. Branches with obvious, black, straight and minute prickles; core pulpy. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, usually clustered at branch tip; stipules lanceolate, deciduous; petiole 10-15 cm, usually without prickles; leaflets broadly ovate or rhomboid-ovate, 15-30 × 15-30 cm, membranous, both surfaces glabrous, basal veins 3, lat­eral veins 5 pairs, base broadly cuneate or truncate, margin en­tire, apex acuminate to obtuse; base of leaflet with a pair of glands similar to stipules. Raceme terminal, 10-16 cm; pe­duncle robust, woody, 7-10 cm, pubescent; flowers paired. Ca­lyx spathelike, 2-3 cm, mouth oblique, split on one side. Co­rolla red, 6-7 cm; standard elliptic, 5-6 × ca. 2.5 cm, apex obtuse, shortly clawed; wings and keels subequal; keel petals separate. Ovary micro-villous; style glabrous. Legume black, reniform, ca. 1.5 × 1 cm. Seeds puniceous, oblong or oblong-ellipsoid. Fl. Feb-May, fr. Apr-Aug. 2n = 42.
Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan [Bangladesh, Cam­bodia, India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Malaysia, Myan­mar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia, Pacific islands; introduced to Africa and Central and South America].
Erythrina variegata is used as an ornamental and for timber and medicine.




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