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金合欢Acacia farnesiana

时间:2018-08-14 08:03来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):金合欢 学名( Scientific Name ): Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. 英文名( English Common Name ): sweet acacia 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 消息花、牛角花 异名( Synonym ): Mimosa farnesiana L. Poponax farne
中文名(Chinese Name):金合欢
学名(Scientific Name):Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
英文名(English Common Name):sweet acacia
别名(Chinese Common Name):消息花、牛角花
异名(Synonym):Mimosa farnesiana L.  Poponax farnesiana (L.) Raf.  Pithecellobium minutum M.E.Jones  Pithecellobium acuminatum M.E.Jones  Mimosa indica Poir.  Farnesiana odora Gasp.  Farnesia odora Gasp.  Acacia minuta (M.E.Jones)R.M.Beauch.  Acacia lenticellata F.Muell.  Acacia indica (Poir.)Desv.  Mimosa acicularis Poir.  Popanax farnesiana (L.)Raf.  Acacia minuta subsp. minuta (M.E.Jones)R.M.Beauch.  Acacia farnesiana var. lenticellata (F.Muell.)Bailey
科属Family & Genus):含羞草科,Mimosaceae金合欢属
形态特征Description):灌木或小乔木,高2-4米;树皮粗糙,褐色,多分枝,小枝常呈“之”字形弯曲,有小皮孔。托叶针刺状,刺长1-2厘米,生于小枝上的较短。二回羽状复叶长2-7厘米,叶轴糟状,被灰白色柔毛,有腺体;羽片4-8对,长1.5-3.5厘米;小叶通常10-20对,线状长圆形,长2-6毫米,宽1-1.5毫米,无毛。头状花序1或2-3个簇生于叶腋,直径1-1.5厘米;总花梗被毛,长1-3厘米,苞片位于总花梗的顶端或近顶部;花黄色,有香味;花萼长1.5毫米,5齿裂;花瓣连合呈管状,长约2.5毫米,5齿裂;雄蕊长约为花冠的2倍;子房圆柱状,被微柔毛。荚果膨胀,近圆柱状,长3-7厘米,宽8-15毫米。褐色,无毛,劲直或弯曲;种子多颗,褐色,卵形,长约6毫米。花期3-6月;果期7-11月。
分布(Distribution):产浙江、台湾、福建、广东、广西、云南、四川。多生于阳光充足,土壤较肥沃、疏松的地方。原产热带美洲,现广布于热带地区。
用途(Use):本种多枝、多刺,可植作绿篱;木材坚硬,可为贵重器材;根及荚果含丹宁,可为黑色染料,入药能收敛、清热;花很香,可提香精;茎流出的树脂可供美工用及药用,品质较阿拉伯胶优良。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 55, 59
Acacia farnesiana (Linnaeus) Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 4: 1083. 1806.
金合欢 jin he huan | Fabaceae  | Acacia
Mimosa farnesiana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 521. 1753; Vachel­lia farnesiana (Linnaeus) Wight & Arnott.
Shrubs or small trees, 2-4 m tall. Bark brown, rough. Branches numerous; branchlets zigzag, with small lenticels. Leaves 2-7 cm; stipules spinelike, spines 1-2 cm, shorter on short branchlets; leaf rachis villous, glandular; pinnae 4-8 pairs, axillary, 1.5-3.5 cm in diam.; leaflets 10-20 pairs, linear-ob­long, 2-6 × 1-1.5 mm, glabrous. Heads 1-3, axillary, 1-1.5 cm in diam.; peduncles 1-3 cm, hairy; bracts at or near tip of peduncle. Flowers yellow, fragrant. Calyx ca. 1.5 mm, 5-toothed. Corolla ca. 2.5 mm, 5-toothed. Stamens ca. 2 × as long as corolla. Ovary cylindric, puberulent. Legume brown, straight or curved, turgid, subcylindric, 3-7 cm × 8-15 mm, glabrous, scarcely dehiscent, filled with a pith separating seeds from each other. Seeds several, brown, ovoid, ca. 6 mm. Fl. Mar-Jun, fr. Jul-Dec. 2n = 26, 52.
Cultivated in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [native to tropical America; cultivated throughout the tropics].
This species is grown as a hedge plant and is used medicinally and for dyes and gums.
 




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