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马缨花杜鹃Rhododendron delavayi

时间:2013-09-09 11:27来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 马缨花杜鹃 学名( Scientific Name ): Rhododendron delavayi Franch. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 马缨花 异名( Synonym ): Rhododendron arboreum subsp. delavayi (Franch.) D.
中文名(Chinese Name):马缨花杜鹃
学名(Scientific Name):Rhododendron delavayi Franch.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):马缨花
异名(Synonym):Rhododendron arboreum subsp. delavayi (Franch.) D. F. Chamb.  Rhododendron pilovittatum I. B. Balfour et W. W. Sm.
科属(Family & Genus):杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)杜鹃属
形态特征(Description):常绿灌木或小乔木,高1-7(-12)米;树皮淡灰褐色,薄片状剥落;幼枝粗壮,被白色绒毛,后变为无毛。顶生冬芽卵圆形,淡绿色,长6-7毫米,多少被白色绒毛。叶革质,长圆状披针形,长7-15厘米,宽1.5-4.5厘米,先端钝尖或急尖,基部楔形,边缘反卷,上面深绿至淡绿色,成长后无毛,下面有白色至灰色或淡褐色海绵状毛被,中脉在上面凹下,下面凸出,近于无毛,侧脉14-20对,在上面凹入,下面稍凸,达于叶缘;叶柄圆柱形,长0.7-2厘米,后变为无毛。顶生伞形花序,圆形,紧密,有花10-20朵;总轴长约1厘米,密被红棕色绒毛;花梗长0.8-1厘米,密被淡褐色绒毛;苞片倒卵形,长2.5厘米,宽1.2厘米,有短尖头,两面均有绢状毛;花萼小,长约2毫米,外面有绒毛和腺体,裂片5,宽三角形;花冠钟形,长3-5厘米,直径3-4厘米,肉质,深红色,内面基部有5枚黑红色蜜腺囊,裂片5,近于圆形,长约1厘米,宽1.3厘米,顶端有缺刻;雄蕊10,不等长,长1.6-4厘米,花丝无毛,花药长圆形,长2-2.8毫米;子房圆锥形,长7毫米,密被红棕色毛,花柱长2.8厘米,无毛,柱头头状。蒴长圆柱形,黑褐色,长1.8-2厘米,直径8毫米,10室,有肋纹及毛被残迹。花期5月,果期12月。
分布(Distribution):产广西、四川、贵州、云南、西藏南部。生于海拔1200-3200米的常绿阔叶林或灌木丛中。越南、泰国、缅甸和印度也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 14 Page 376      
Rhododendron delavayi Franchet, Bull. Soc. Bot. France. 33: 231. 1886.
马缨杜鹃 ma ying du juan | Apiaceae  | Rhododendron
Shrubs or trees, 1–7(–12) m tall; bark grayish, exfoliating into thin and small irregular flakes; young shoots stout, white-floccose, glabrescent. Winter buds ovoid, greenish, 6–7 mm, slightly tomentose. Petiole cylindric, 7–20 mm, glabrous; leaf blade leathery, long-lanceolate, 7–15 × 1–5 cm; base tapering; margin revolute; apex obtuse or acute; abaxial surface with indumentum 1-layered, spongy or somewhat agglutinated, whitish to fawn, glabrescent; adaxial surface light or dark green, ± rugose, glabrous at maturity, midrib very prominent abaxially, deeply grooved adaxially; lateral veins 14–20-paired, slightly raised abaxially, impressed adaxially; reticulate veins evident. Inflorescence spherical, umbellate, 10–20-flowered; rachis ca. 10 mm, densely rufous-tomentose. Pedicel stout, 0.8–1 cm, densely fawn-tomentose; calyx lobes 5, ca. 2 mm, triangular; corolla campanulate, fleshy, deep crimson to carmine, 3–5 × 3–4 cm, with 5 basal nectar pouches; lobes 5, ca. 1 × 1.3 cm, apex emarginate; stamens 10, unequal, 1.6–4 cm, filaments glabrous, anthers oblong, 2–2.8 mm; ovary conoid, ca. 8 mm, 10-locular, densely fawn-tomentose; style ca. 2.8 cm, glabrous or floccose to tip, stigma capitate. Capsule oblong, 18–20 × ca. 8 mm, blackish and roughened with the remains of the rusty tomentum. Fl. May, fr. Dec.
Mixed forests, evergreen broad-leaved forests, forest margins, thickets, hills, rocky slopes; 1200–3200 m. NW Guangxi, W Guizhou, SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, NE India, Myanmar, Thailand, N Vietnam].
Rhododendron delavayi intergrades with R. arboreum in Bhutan and NE India.








 
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