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卫矛Euonymus alatus

时间:2013-07-22 12:08来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 卫矛 学名( Scientific Name ): Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold 英文名( English Common Name ): burningbush 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 鬼箭羽 异名( Synonym ): Euonymus ellipticus (C. H. Wang) C. Y. Ch






中文名(Chinese Name):卫矛
学名(Scientific Name):Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold
英文名(English Common Name):burningbush
别名(Chinese Common Name):鬼箭羽
异名(Synonym):Euonymus ellipticus (C. H. Wang) C. Y. Cheng  Euonymus sacrosanctus Koidz.  Celastrus striatus Thunb.  Celastrus alatus Thunb.  Euonymus thunbergianus Blume  Euonymus alata var. pilosa Loes. et Rehder  Euonymus striata Loes. ex Gilg et Makino  Euonymus verrucosa var. tchefouensis Debeaux  Euonymus alata var. pubescens Maxim.  Euonymus loeseneri Makino  Euonymus kawachiana Nakai  Euonymus subtriflora Blume  Euonymus arakiana Koidz.  Euonymus alata Rupr.  Euonymus alata var. elliptica Chen H. Wang  Euonymus elliptica (Chen H. Wang) C. Y. Cheng  Euonymus alatus f. angustatus Makino  Euonymus alatus f. compactus (Adams) Rehder  Euonymus alatus f. striatus (Thunb.) Kitag.  Euonymus alatus f. variegatus Nakai  Euonymus alatus var. apterus Regel  Euonymus alatus var. ciliatodentatus Franch. & Sav.  Euonymus alatus var. cornucarpus Koidz.  Euonymus alatus var. ellipticus Chen H.Wang  Euonymus alatus var. hirtus Koidz.  Euonymus alatus var. macrophyllus Nakai  Euonymus alatus var. pilosus Loes. & Rehder  Euonymus alatus var. rotundatus Makino ex Koidz.  Euonymus alatus var. uncinatus Nakai  Euonymus arakianus Koidz.  Euonymus subtriflorus Blume  Euonymus rotundatus (Makino) Nakai  Euonymus striatus f. angustatus Makino  Euonymus striatus var. rotundatus Makino  Euonymus kawachianus Nakai  Melanocarya alata Turcz.
科属(Family & Genus):卫矛科(Celastraceae)卫矛属
形态特征(Description):灌木,高1-3米;小枝常具2-4列宽阔木栓翅;冬芽圆形,长2毫米左右,芽鳞边缘具不整齐细坚齿。叶卵状椭圆形、窄长椭圆形,偶为倒卵形,长2-8厘米,宽1-3厘米,边缘具细锯齿,两面光滑无毛;叶柄长1-3毫米。聚伞花序1-3花;花序梗长约1厘米,小花梗长5毫米;花白绿色,直径约8毫米,4数;萼片半圆形;花瓣近圆形;雄蕊着生花盘边缘处,花丝极短,开花后稍增长,花药宽阔长方形,2室顶裂。蒴果1-4深裂,裂瓣椭圆状,长7-8毫米;种子椭圆状或阔椭圆状,长5-6毫米,种皮褐色或浅棕色,假种皮橙红色,全包种子。花期5-6月,果期7-10月。
分布(Distribution):除东北、新疆、青海、西藏、广东及海南外,其他各省均有产。生于山坡、沟地边沿。日本及朝鲜也有。
用途(Use):带栓翅的枝条入中药,叫鬼箭羽。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 11 Page 448
Euonymus alatus (Thunberg) Siebold, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunst. 12: 49. 1830.
卫矛 wei mao| Celastraceae  | Euonymus
Celastrus alatus Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14, 237. 1784; C. striatus Thunberg; Euonymus alatus var. ellipticus Chen H. Wang; E. alatus var. microphyllus Chen H. Wang; E. alatus var. pilosus Loesener & Rehder; E. alatus var. pubescens Maximowicz; E. ellipticus (Chen H. Wang) C. Y. Cheng; E. striatus (Thunberg) Loesener; E. verrucosus Scopoli var. tchefouensis Debeaux.
Deciduous shrubs, 1-4 m tall; young branches usually with 2 or 4 winglike corks, wings up to 5 mm wide, 1-2 mm thick, twigs 4-angled, green or brown when dry. Petiole sessile or very short, 2-4 mm; leaf blade thinly leathery to papery, obovate or obovate-elliptic, sometimes ovate-elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 4.5-10 × 2-4 cm, base cuneate or attenuate, margin crenulate to serrulate, apex acute, acuminate, or even caudate; lateral veins 5-7 pairs, curving forward and disappearing before reaching margin. Peduncle slender and short, 1-2 cm, typically 1 dichotomous branch with 3 flowers, rarely 2 branches with more flowers; pedicel slender, 5-7 mm. Flowers 4-merous, ca. 9 mm in diam.; sepals suborbicular; petals green, light yellow, or greenish yellow, ovate, base attenuate. Capsule reddish brown when fresh, dark brown or gray when dry, 4-lobed, 1-1.3 cm in diam., only 1-3 lobes developing, lobes ovoid. Aril bright red. Fl. Apr-Jul, fr. Jul-Nov.
Forests, woodlands, scrub; near sea level to 2700 m. Anhui, Gansu, Guangdong, ?Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, ?Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Russia (Sakhalin); cultivated in Europe and North America].
This species is widespread, not only as a common shrub in the distribution area but also as a cultivated ornamental in the Old and New Worlds. The leaves change from pinkish to reddish and even purple in late autumn. The distribution reports from Guangxi and Yunnan have not been confirmed.
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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