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蓝树Wrightia laevis

时间:2013-07-16 09:55来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):蓝树 学名( Scientific Name ): Wrightia laevis Hook. f. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 大蓝靛、木靛 异名( Synonym ): Wrightia hainanensis var. variabilis Tsiang;Wrightia ha




中文名(Chinese Name):蓝树
学名(Scientific Name):Wrightia laevis Hook. f.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):大蓝靛、木靛
异名(Synonym):Wrightia hainanensis var. variabilis Tsiang;Wrightia hainanensis Merr.;Wrightia tinctoria var. laevis (Hook. f.) Pichon;Wrightia balansae Pit.;Wrightia laevis subsp. millgar (F.M.Bailey) Ngan;Wrightia laevis subsp. novoguineensis Ngan;Wrightia macrocarpa Pit.  Wrightia millgar F.M.Bailey;Wrightia sorsogonensis Elmer 
科属(Family & Genus):夹竹桃科(Apocynaceae)蓝树属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高8-20米,除花外,均无毛,具乳汁;树皮深灰色;小枝棕褐色,具皮孔。叶膜质,长圆状披针形或狭椭圆形至椭圆形,稀卵圆形,顶端渐尖至尾状渐尖,基部楔形,长7-18厘米,宽2.5-8厘米,无毛;叶脉在叶面扁平,在叶背略凸起,侧脉每边5-9(稀11)条,干后呈缝纫机轧孔状的皱纹;叶柄长5-7毫米。花白色或淡黄色,多朵组成顶生聚伞花序,长6厘米,宽8厘米;总花梗长1厘米,无毛至有微柔毛;花梗长1.0-1.5厘米,无毛至有微柔毛;苞片小;花萼短而厚,裂片比花冠筒短,卵形,长1毫米,顶端钝或圆,内面基部有卵形腺体;花冠漏斗状,花冠筒长1.5-3毫米,裂片椭圆状长圆形,长5.5-13.5毫米,宽3-4毫米,具乳头状凸起;副花冠分裂为25-35鳞片,呈流苏状,鳞片顶端条裂,基部合生,被微柔毛;雄蕊着生在花冠筒顶端,花药被微柔毛,长5毫米;子房由2枚离生心皮组成,无毛,花柱丝状,向上逐渐增大,柱头头状。蓇葖2个离生,圆柱状,顶部渐尖,长20-35厘米,直径7毫米,外果皮具斑点;种子线状披针形,长1.5-2厘米,顶端具白色绢质种毛;种毛长2-4厘米。花期4-8月,果期7月-翌年3月。
分布(Distribution):产广东、广西、贵州及云南等地。生于村中、路旁及山地疏林中或山谷向阳处。东南亚至澳大利亚也有。
用途(Use):叶浸水可得蓝色染料,广西十万大山的居民常用它来染布。根和叶供药用,广西民间有来作治跌打、刀伤止血。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 16 Page 175      
Wrightia laevis J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India. 3: 654. 1882.
蓝树 lan shu | Apocynaceae  | Wrightia
Wrightia hainanensis Merrill; W. hainanensis var. variabilis Tsiang; W. tinctoria R. Brown var. laevis (J. D. Hooker) Pichon.
Trees to 40 m tall, glabrous except for flowers. Bark dark gray, branchlets brownish, lenticellate. Petiole 5-7 mm; leaf blade oblong or narrowly elliptic, rarely ovate, 7-18 X 2.5-8 cm, apex acuminate to caudate-acuminate; lateral veins 5-11 pairs. Cymes ca. 6 cm; peduncle ca. 1 cm, puberulent to glabrous. Pedicel 1-1.5 cm. Sepals broadly ovate, ca. 1 mm, pubescent outside, apex rounded or obtuse. Corolla white or yellowish, funnelform, tube 1.5-3 mm; lobes narrowly elliptic, 5.5-13.5 mm, papillate; corona fringed, scales 25-35, linear, puberulent. Anthers as long as corona, puberulent. Ovaries 2, distinct. Follicles cylindric, distinct, 20-35 cm X ca. 7 mm, lenticellate. Seeds sublinear, 1.5-2 cm, coma to 4 cm. Fl. Apr-Aug, fr. Jul-Dec. 2n = 22.
Montane forests, valley thickets; 200-1000 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; N Australia]
The roots and leaves are used to treat injury and cuts, and the fruits are used to cure pulmonary tuberculosis. A blue dye is extracted from the leaves.
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