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落羽杉Taxodium distichum

时间:2013-07-15 16:01来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
落羽杉,Taxodium distichum,落羽松










中文名(Chinese Name):落羽杉
学名(Scientific Name):Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.
英文名(English Common Name):bald cypress
别名(Chinese Common Name):落羽松
异名(Synonym):Cupressus disticha L.;Cupressus disticha var. nutans Aiton;Taxodium ascendens var. nutans (Aiton) Rehder;Cupressus laeta Salisb.;Schubertia disticha (L.) Mirb.;Cuprespinnata disticha (L.) J. Nelson;Taxodium distichum subsp. nutans (Aiton) E. Murray;Cupressus disticha var. patens Aiton;Taxodium distichum var. patens (Aiton) Sweet;Taxodium sinense var. pendulum Forbes;Glyptostrobus pendulus (Forbes) Endl.;Taxodium distichum var. pendulum (Forbes) Carriére;Cupressepinnata disticha (L.) J. Nelson;Cupressus montezumae Humb. & Bonpl. ex Parl. ;Glyptostrobus columnaris Carrière;Taxodium denudatum Carrière;Taxodium distichum f. confusum E.J.Palmer & Steyerm.;Taxodium distichum f. pendens Rehder;Taxodium distichum f. pendulum-elegans Beissn.;Taxodium distichum f. pendulum-novum P.Sm. ex Beissn.;Taxodium knightii K.Koch;Taxodium pyramidatum Beissn. 
科属(Family & Genus):杉科(Taxodiaceae)落羽杉属
形态特征(Description):落叶乔木,在原产地高达50米,胸径可达2米;树干尖削度大,干基通常膨大,常有屈膝状的呼吸根;树皮棕色,裂成长条片脱落;枝条水平开展,幼树树冠圆锥形,老则呈宽圆锥状;新生幼枝绿色,到冬季则变为棕色;生叶的侧生小枝排成二列。叶条形,扁平,基部扭转在小枝上列成二列,羽状,长1-1.5厘米,宽约1毫米,先端尖,上面中脉凹下,淡绿色,下面黄绿色或灰绿色,中脉隆起,每边有4-8条气孔线,凋落前变成暗红褐色。雄球花卵圆形,有短梗,在小枝顶端排列成总状花序状或圆锥花序状。球果球形或卵圆形,有短梗,向下斜垂,熟时淡褐黄色,有白粉,径约2.5厘米;种鳞木质,盾形,顶部有明显或微明显的纵槽;种子不规则三角形,有锐棱,长1.2-1.8厘米,褐色。球果10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):原产北美东南部,耐水湿,能生于排水不良的沼泽地上。
用途(Use):木材重,纹理直,结构较粗,硬度适中,耐腐力强。可作建筑、电杆、家具、造船等用。我国江南低湿地区已用之造林或栽培作庭园树。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Taxodium distichum (Linnaeus) Richard, Ann. Nat. Hist. 16: 298. 1810.
落羽杉 luo yu shan | Taxodiaceae  | Taxodium
Trees deciduous, to 50 m tall; pneumatophores present or absent around trunk; trunk swollen and buttressed at base, strongly tapered upward, to 2 m d.b.h.; bark brown, reddish brown, or gray, peeling off in long strips; crown conical, finally broadly conical, or relatively narrow and pyramidal; main branches spreading horizontally or ascending; lateral branchlets 2-ranked, axis green in 1st year, turning brown or brownish red in 1st winter. Leaves 2-ranked on annual branchlets or not, light green adaxially, yellowish green or grayish green abaxially, turning dark reddish brown in autumn, linear and flat or subulate, 4-15 × ca. 1 mm, midvein depressed adaxially, raised abaxially, stomatal lines 4-8, apex acute or sharply pointed. Pollen cones borne in terminal, crowded, short, dense racemes or panicles 5-12 cm, shortly pedunculate, ovoid. Seed cones brownish yellow or white powdery, not glaucous, globose, oblong-globose, or ovoid, (1.4-)2-4 × (1.3-)1.8-3 cm; cone scales shield-shaped, woody, ± conspicuously longitudinally grooved at apex. Seeds brown or reddish brown, irregularly triangular-pyramidal, 1.2-2.6 × 0.5-2.3 cm, sharply ridged. Pollination Mar-Apr, seed maturity (Jul-)Oct.
Used for afforestation on marshy soils, and cultivated as an ornamental. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [native to SE United States]
The wood is used in buildings, ship construction, furniture manufacture, etc.
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