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金钱松 Pseudolarix amabilis

时间:2013-07-15 16:19来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
金钱松,Pseudolarix amabilis,金松








中文名(Chinese Name):金钱松
学名(Scientific Name):Pseudolarix amabilis (Nelson) Rehd.
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese golden-larch
别名(Chinese Common Name):金松
异名(Synonym):Abies kaempferi Lindl.;Larix amabilis J. Nelson;Pseudolarix pourtetii Ferré;Pseudolarix fortunei Mayr;Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon;Laricopsis kaempferi (Lindl.) Kent;Chrysolarix amabilis (J. Nelson) H. E. Moore;Laricopsis fortunei (Mayr) Mayr  
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)金钱松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达40米,胸径达1.5米;树干通直,树皮粗糙,灰褐色,裂成不规则的鳞片状块片;枝平展,树冠宽塔形;一年生长枝淡红褐色或淡红黄色,无毛,有光泽,二、三年生枝淡黄灰色或淡褐灰色,稀淡紫褐色,老枝及短枝呈灰色、暗灰色或淡褐灰色;矩状短枝生长极慢,有密集成环节状的叶枕。叶条形,柔软,镰状或直,上部稍宽,长2-5.5厘米,宽1.5-4毫米(幼树及萌生枝之叶长达7厘米,宽5毫米),先端锐尖或尖,上面绿色,中脉微明显,下面蓝绿色,中脉明显,每边有5-14条气孔线,气孔带较中脉带为宽或近于等宽;长枝之叶辐射伸展,短枝之叶簇状密生,平展成圆盘形,秋后叶呈金黄色。雄球花黄色,圆柱状,下垂,长5-8毫米,梗长4-7毫米;雌球花紫红色,直立,椭圆形,长约1.3厘米,有短梗。球果卵圆形或倒卵圆形,长6-7.5厘米,径4-5厘米,成熟前绿色或淡黄绿色,熟时淡红褐色,有短梗;中部的种鳞卵状披针形,长2.8-3.5厘米,基部宽约1.7厘米,两侧耳状,先端钝有凹缺,腹面种翅痕之间有纵脊凸起,脊上密生短柔毛,鳞背光滑无毛;苞鳞长约种鳞的1/4-1/3,卵状披针形,边缘有细齿;种子卵圆形,白色,长约6毫米,种翅三角状披针形,淡黄色或淡褐黄色,上面有光泽,连同种子几乎与种鳞等长。花期4月,球果10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种,产于江苏南部(宜兴)、浙江、安徽南部、福建北部、江西、湖南、湖北利川至四川万县交界地区,在海拔100-1500米地带散生于针叶树、阔叶树林中。庐山、南京等地有栽培。
用途(Use):木材纹理通直,硬度适中,材质稍粗,性较脆。可作建筑、板材、家具、器具及木纤维工业原料等用;树皮可提栲胶,入药(俗称土槿皮)可治顽癣和食积等症;根皮亦可药用,也可作造纸胶料;种子可榨油。树姿优美,秋后叶呈金黄色,颇为美观,可作庭园树。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Pseudolarix amabilis (J. Nelson) Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 1: 53. 1919.
金钱松 jin qian song | Pinaceae  | Pseudolarix
Larix amabilis J. Nelson, Pinaceae 84. 1866; Abies kaempferi Lindley; Chrysolarix amabilis (J. Nelson) H. E. Moore; Laricopsis kaempferi (Lindley) Kent; Pseudolarix fortunei Mayr; P. kaempferi Gordon; P. pourtetii Ferre.
Trees to 40 m tall; trunk to 3 m d.b.h.; bark gray-brown, rough, scaly, flaking; crown broadly conical; long branchlets initially reddish brown or reddish yellow, glossy, glabrous, becoming yellowish gray, brownish gray, or rarely purplish brown in 2nd or 3rd year, finally gray or dark gray; short branchlets slow growing, bearing dense rings of leaf cushions; winter buds ovoid, scales free at apex. Leaves bluish green adaxially, pale green abaxially, slightly curved or straight, 2-5.5 cm × 1.5-4 mm, slightly keeled adaxially, stomatal lines present on abaxial surface, midvein prominent abaxially, apex acute. Seed cones green or yellow-green, maturing reddish brown, obovoid or ovoid, 5-7.5 × 4-5 cm. Seed scales ovate-lanceo late, 2.8-3.5 × ca. 1.7 cm, with a longitudinal, central, densely pubescent ridge adaxially, base with 2 lateral auricles, apex emarginate. Bracts ovate-lanceolate, 1/4-1/3 as long as seed scales, margin denticulate. Seeds white, ovoid, 6-7 mm; wing light yellow or brownish yellow, glossy adaxially, triangular-lanceolate, circa 2.5 cm. Pollination Apr, seed maturity Oct
* Evergreen and deciduous, broad-leaved mixed, forests; 100-1500 m. Native range difficult to discern owing to long history of cultivation but probably the lower Chang Jiang valley: N Fujian, Hunan, N Jiangxi, N Zhejiang; cultivated in S Anhui, W Hubei, S Jiangsu, E Sichuan.
A rare species (as a native plant). The wood is used for furniture, boat building, and bridges. An excellent ornamental tree with its attractive crown and golden autumn color.

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