白皮松Pinus bungeana

白皮松Pinus bungeana

白皮松Pinus bungeana

白皮松Pinus bungeana

白皮松Pinus bungeana

中文名(Chinese Name):白皮松
学名(Scientific Name):Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl.
英文名(English Common Name):Bunge's pine
别名(Chinese Common Name):白骨松、白果松
异名(Synonym):Pinus excorticata Lindl. & Gordon
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达30米,胸径可达3米;有明显的主干,或从树干近基部分成数干;枝较细长,斜展,形成宽塔形至伞形树冠;幼树树皮光滑,灰绿色,长大后树皮成不规则的薄块片脱落,露出淡黄绿色的新皮,老则树皮呈淡褐灰色或灰白色,裂成不规则的鳞状块片脱落,脱落后近光滑,露出粉白色的内皮,白褐相间成斑鳞状;一年生枝灰绿色,无毛;冬芽红褐色,卵圆形,无树脂。针叶3针一束,粗硬,长5-10厘米,径1.5-2毫米,叶背及腹面两侧均有气孔线,先端尖,边缘有细锯齿;横切面扇状三角形或宽纺锤形,单层皮下层细胞,在背面偶尔出现1-2个断续分布的第二层细胞,树脂道6-7,边生,稀背面角处有1-2个中生;叶鞘脱落。雄球花卵圆形或椭圆形,长约l厘米,多数聚生于新枝基部成穗状,长5-10厘米。球果通常单生,初直立,后下垂,成熟前淡绿色,熟时淡黄褐色,卵圆形或圆锥状卵圆形,长5-7厘米,径4-6厘米,有短梗或几无梗;种鳞矩圆状宽楔形,先端厚,鳞盾近菱形,有横脊,鳞脐生于鳞盾的中央,明显,三角状,顶端有刺,刺之尖头向下反曲,稀尖头不明显;种子灰褐色,近倒卵圆形,长约1厘米,径5-6毫米,种翅短,赤褐色,有关节易脱落,长约5毫米;子叶9-11枚,针形,长3.1-3.7厘米,宽约1毫米,初生叶窄条形,长1.8-4厘米,宽不及1毫米,上下面均有气孔线,边缘有细锯齿。花期4-5月,球果第二年10-11月成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种,产于山西(吕梁山、中条山、太行山)、河南西部、陕西秦岭、甘肃南部及天水麦积山、四川北部江油观雾山及湖北西部等地,生于海拔500-1800米地带。
用途(Use):心材黄褐色,边材黄白色或黄褐色,质脆弱,纹理直,有光泽,花纹美丽,比重0.46。可供房屋建筑、家具、文具等用材;种子可食; 树姿优美,树皮白色或褐白相间、极为美观,为优良的庭园树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Pinus bungeana Zuccarini ex Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 166. 1847.
白皮松 bai pi song| Pinaceae  | Pinus
Trees to 30 m tall; trunk monopodial or forked near base, to 3 m d.b.h.; bark irregularly flaking, inner bark pale, exfoliating in irregular, thin, scaly patches; crown broadly pyramidal or umbrellalike; 1st-year branchlets gray-green, glabrous; winter buds red-brown, ovoid, not resinous. Needles 3 per bundle, triangular-flabellate in cross section, 5-10 cm × 0.5-2 mm, stiff, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 6 or 7, marginal, rarely 1 or 2 median, base with sheath shed. Seed cones solitary, shortly pedunculate or subsessile, usually pale green, yellowish brown at maturity, ovoid or conical-ovoid, 5-7 × 4-6 cm. Seed scales broadly oblong-cuneate, apex thickened; apophyses subrhombic, obviously transversely ridged; umbo dorsal, triangular, protruding, usually terminating in a recurved spine. Seeds gray-brown, subobovoid, ca. 10 × 5-6 mm; wing loosely attached, ca. 5 mm. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Oct-Nov of 2nd year.
* Mountains, hills; 500-1800 m. S Gansu, W Henan, W Hubei (Badong Xian), S Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, N Sichuan
(责任编辑:徐晔春)

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