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白扦Picea meyeri

时间:2013-07-15 16:14来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
白扦,Picea meyeri,白枝云杉






中文名(Chinese Name):白扦
学名(Scientific Name): Picea meyeri Rehd. et Wils.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):白枝云杉
异名(Synonym):Picea meyeri var. mongolica H. Q. Wu;Picea meyeri var. pyramidalis H. Wei Jen et C. G. Bai;Picea meyeri f. pyramidalis (H. Wei Jen et C. G. Bai) L. K. Fu et Nan Li;Picea mongolica (H. Q. Wu) W. D. Xu;Picea meyeri forma pyramidalis (H.W. Jen & C.G. Bai) L. K. Fu & Nan Li;Picea meyeri subsp. mongolica (H.Q.Wu) Silba  
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)云杉属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达30米,胸径约60厘米;树皮灰褐色,裂成不规则的薄块片脱落;大枝近平展,树冠塔形;小枝有密生或疏生短毛或无毛, 一年生枝黄褐色,二、三年生枝淡黄褐色、淡褐色或褐色;冬芽圆锥形,间或侧芽成卵状圆锥形,褐色,微有树脂,光滑无毛,基部芽鳞有背脊,上部芽鳞的先端常微向外反曲,小枝基部宿存芽鳞的先端微反卷或开展。主枝之叶常辐射伸展,侧枝上面之叶伸展,两侧及下面之叶向上弯伸,四棱状条形,微弯曲,长1.3-3厚米,.宽约2毫米,先端钝尖或钝,横切面四棱形,四面有白色气孔线,上面6-7条,下面4-5条。球果成熟前绿色,熟时褐黄色,矩圆状圆柱形,长6-9厘米,径2.5-3.5厘米;中部种鳞倒卵形,长约1.6厘米,宽约1.2厘米,先端圆或钝三角形,下部宽楔形或微圆,鳞背露出部分有条纹;种子倒卵圆形,长约3.5毫米,种翅淡褐色,倒宽披针形,连种子长约1.3厘米。花期4月,球果9月下旬至10月上旬成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种,产于山西、河北、内蒙古西乌珠穆沁旗,在海拔1600-2700米、气温较低、雨量及湿度较平原为高、土壤为灰色棕色森林土或棕色森林地带。
用途(Use):木材黄白色、材质较轻软,纹理直,结构细,可供建筑、电杆、桥梁、家具及木纤维工业原料用材。宜作华北地区高山上部的造林树种。亦可栽培作庭园树,北京庭园多有栽培,生长很慢。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Picea meyeri Rehder & E. H. Wilson in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 2: 28. 1914.
白扦 bai qian | Pinaceae  | Picea
Picea meyeri var. mongolica H. Q. Wu; P. meyeri f. pyramidalis (H. W. Jen & C. G. Bai) L. K. Fu & Nan Li; P. meyeri var. pyramidalis H. W. Gen & C. G. Bai; P. mongolica (H. Q. Wu) W. D. Xu.
Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 60 cm d.b.h.; bark gray-brown, irregularly flaking; crown conical; branchlets yellow-brown, pubescent or glabrous; winter buds brown, conical or ovoid-conical, slightly resinous, scales recurved. Leaves spreading radially, ascending on upper side of branchlets, spreading and curved upward on lower side, quadrangular-linear, slightly curved, 1.3-3 cm × ca. 2 mm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, apex obtuse or subacute. Seed cones green, maturing brown-yellow, oblong-cylindric, 6-9 × 2.5-3.5 cm. Seed scales obovate, ca. 1.6 × 1.2 cm, striate on exposed part abaxially, base broadly cuneate or nearly orbicular, apex rounded or triangular-obtuse. Seeds obovoid, ca. 3.5 mm; wing pale brown, oblanceolate, ca. 1 cm. Pollination Apr, seed maturity Sep-Oct.
* Mountains; 1600-2700 m. ?S Gansu, Hebei, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi
The timber is used for construction, poles, bridge building, furniture, and wood pulp. The species is also cultivated for afforestation and as an ornamental.
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