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油杉Keteleeria fortunei

时间:2013-07-15 16:10来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
油杉,Keteleeria fortunei,杜松,海罗松






中文名(Chinese Name):油杉
学名(Scientific Name):Keteleeria fortunei (Murr.) Carr.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):杜松、海罗松
异名(Synonym):Picea fortunei A. Murray;Abies fortunei (A. Murray bis) A. Murray bis;Pinus fortunei (A. Murray bis) Parl.;Abietia fortunei (A. Murray bis) A.H. Kent;Pseudotsuga fortunei (A. Murray bis) W.R. McNab;Keteleeria fortunei subsp. cyclolepis (Flous) Silba;Keteleeria fortunei subsp. oblonga (W.C.Cheng & L.K.Fu) Silba 
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)油杉属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达30米,胸径达1米;树皮粗糙,暗灰色,纵裂,较松软;枝条开展,树冠 塔形;一年生枝有毛或无毛,干后橘红色或淡粉红色,二、三年生时淡黄灰色或淡黄褐色,常不开裂。叶条形,在侧枝上排成两列,长1.2-3厘米,宽2-4毫米,先端圆或钝,基部渐窄,上面光绿色,无气孔线,下面淡绿色,沿中脉每边有气孔线12-17条; 横切面上面至下面两侧边缘和下面中部有一层连续排列的皮下层细胞,两端角部二至三层;幼枝或萌生枝的叶先端有渐尖的刺状尖头,间或果枝之叶亦有刺状尖头。球果圆柱形,成熟前绿色或淡绿色,微有白粉,成熟时淡褐色或淡栗色,长6-18厘米,径5-6.5厘米;中部的种鳞宽圆形或上部宽圆下部宽楔形,长2.5-3.2厘米,宽2.7-3.3厘米,上部宽圆或近平截,稀中央微凹,边缘向内反曲,鳞背露出部分无毛;鳞苞中部窄,下部稍宽,上部卵圆形,先端三裂,中裂窄长,侧裂稍圆,有钝尖头;种翅中上部较宽,下部渐窄。花期3-4月,种子10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种,产于浙江南部、福建、广东、广西南部沿海山地;生于海拔400-1200米,气候温暖,雨量多,酸性土红壤或黄壤的地带。
用途(Use):木材坚实耐用,供建筑、家具等用材;可作东南沿海山区的造林树种,又可作园林树用。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Keteleeria fortunei (A. Murray bis) Carrière, Rev. Hort. 37: 449. 1866.
油杉 you shan| Pinaceae  | Keteleeria
Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h.; bark dark gray, rough, longitudinally fissured; crown pyramidal; branchlets initially orange-red or reddish, turning yellowish gray or yellowish brown in 2nd or 3rd year, ± pubescent. Leaves pectinately arranged in lateral sets, linear, 1.2-3(-4) cm × 2-4 mm, stomatal lines (0-)2-4(-10) adaxially and 12-17 in each band abaxially, apex obtuse, rarely acute or slightly notched. Seed cones cylindric or oblong-cylindric, 6-18(-20) × (3.5-)5-6.5 cm. Seed scales compressed orbicular, rhombic-orbicular, or rarely oblong, thick or thin, (1.8-)2.5-3.2 × (1.8-)2.7-3.5 cm,exposed part glabrous abaxially, margin entire, apex convex, rounded, or rounded-truncate. Seeds oblong, 1-1.3 cm × 5-6 mm; wing yellowish brown, ± cuneate, apex oblique. Pollination Mar-Apr, seed maturity Oct.
Hills, mountains, broad-leaved forests; 200-1400 m. S Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, S Hunan, SW Jiangxi, SE Yunnan, SW Zhejiang [N Vietnam]
A vulnerable species in China. The timber is used for construction and furniture. The species is also cultivated for afforestation and as an ornamental.
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