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雪松Cedrus deodara

时间:2013-07-15 16:08来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
雪松,Cedrus deodara,香柏,喜马拉雅雪松








中文名(Chinese Name):雪松
学名(Scientific Name): Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don
英文名(English Common Name):Deodar cedar
别名(Chinese Common Name):香柏、喜马拉雅雪松
异名(Synonym):Cedrus libani subsp. deodara (Roxb.) P. D. Sell;Cedrus libani var. deodara (Roxb.) Hook. f.;Larix deodara (Roxb.) K. Koch;Abies deodara (Roxb.) Lindl.;Cedrus indica Chambray  Cedrus deodara f. aurea Rehder;Cedrus deodara var. argentea Carrière;Cedrus deodara var. compacta Carrière;Cedrus deodara var. fastigiata Carrière;Cedrus deodara var. flava Carrière  Cedrus deodara var. tristis Carrière;Cedrus deodara var. variegata Carrière;Cedrus libani subsp. deodora (Roxb. ex Lamb.) P.D.Sell 
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)雪松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达50米,胸径达3米;树皮深灰色,裂成不规则的鳞状块片;枝平展、微斜展或微下垂,基部宿存芽鳞向外反曲,小枝常下垂,一年生长枝淡灰黄色,密生短绒毛,微有白粉,二、三年生枝呈灰色、淡褐灰色或深灰色。叶在长枝上辐射伸展,短枝之叶成簇生状(每年生出新叶约15-20枚),针形,坚硬,淡绿色或深绿色,长2.5-5厘米,宽1-1.5毫米,上部较宽,先端锐尖,下部渐窄,常成三棱形,稀背脊明显,叶之腹面两侧各有2-3条气孔线,背面4-6条,幼时气孔线有白粉。雄球花长卵圆形或椭圆状卵圆形,长2-3厘米,径约1厘米;雌球花卵圆形,长约8毫米,径约5毫米。球果成熟前淡绿色,微有白粉,熟时红褐色,卵圆形或宽椭圆形,长7-12厘米,径5-9厘米,顶端圆钝,有短梗;中部种鳞扇状倒三角形,长2.5-4厘米,宽4-6厘米,上部宽圆,边缘内曲,中部楔状,下部耳形,基部爪状,鳞背密生短绒毛;苞鳞短小;种子近三角状,种翅宽大,较种子为长,连同种子长2.2-3.7厘米。
分布(Distribution):分布于阿富汗至印度,海拔1300-3300米地带。
用途(Use):边材白色,心材褐色,纹理通直,材质坚实、致密而均匀,比重0.56,有树脂,具香气,少翘裂, 耐久用。可作建筑、桥梁、造船、家具及器具等用。雪松终年常绿,树形美观,亦为普遍栽培的庭园树。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Cedrus deodara (Roxburgh) G. Don in Loudon, Hort. Brit. 1: 388. 1830.
雪松 xue song | Pinaceae  | Cedrus
Pinus deodara Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. 1832, 3: 651. 1832; Cedrus libani A. Richard subsp. deodara (Roxburgh) P. D. Sell; C. libani var. deodara (Roxburgh) J. D. Hooker.
Trees to 60 m tall; trunk to 3 m d.b.h.; bark dark gray, cracking into irregular scales; branches horizontal, slightly tilted or slightly pendulous; long branchlets usually pendulous, pale grayish yellow and densely pubescent with some white powder in 1st year, thereafter grayish; winter bud scales curved outward at base. Leaves radially spreading on long branchlets, in apparent fascicles of 15-20 on short branchlets, initially pale green, aging dark green, linear but broader distally, triangular in cross section, 2.5-5 cm × 1-1.5 mm, hard, stomatal lines 2 or 3 adaxially and 4-6 abaxially, apex acuminate. Seed cones shortly pedunculate, pale green, initially with some white powder, becoming reddish brown when ripe, ovoid or broadly ellipsoid, 7-12 × 5-9 cm. Seed scales flabellate-obtriangular, 2.5-4 × 4-6 cm, margin auriculate into a claw at base, cuneate in central part, incurved distally. Seeds ± triangular, ca. 1 cm; wing ca. 1.5 × 2 cm.
Native in extreme SW Xizang; extensively cultivated as an ornamenta
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