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穗花杉Amentotaxus argotaenia

时间:2013-07-15 16:08来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
穗花杉,Amentotaxus argotaenia,华西穗花杉






中文名(Chinese Name):穗花杉
学名(Scientific Name): Amentotaxus argotaenia (Hance) Pilger
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):华西穗花杉
异名(Synonym):Amentotaxus argotaenia var. cathayensis (H. L. Li) Keng f.;Amentotaxus cathayensis H. L. Li  Podocarpus insignis Hemsl.;Podocarpus argotaenia Hance;Cephalotaxus argotaenia (Hance) Pilg.  
科属(Family & Genus):红豆杉科(Taxaceae)穗花杉属
形态特征(Description):灌木或小乔木,高达7米;树皮灰褐色或淡红褐色,裂成片状脱落;小枝斜展或向上伸展,圆或近方形,一年生枝绿色,二、三年生枝绿黄色、黄色或淡黄红色。叶基部扭转列成两列,条状披针形,直或微弯镰状,长3-11厘米,宽6-11毫米,先端尖或钝,基部渐窄,楔形或宽楔形,有极短的叶柄,边缘微向下曲,下面白色气孔带与绿色边带等宽或较窄;萌生枝的叶较长,通常镰状,稀直伸,先端有渐尖的长尖头,气孔带较绿色边带为窄。雄球花穗1-3(多为2)穗,长5-6.5厘米,雄蕊有2-5(多为3个花药)。种子椭圆形,成熟时假种皮鲜红色,长2-2.5厘米,径约1.3厘米,顶端有小尖头露出,基部宿存苞片的背部有纵脊,梗长约1.3厘米,扁四棱形。花期4月,种子10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种,产于江西西北部、湖北西部及西南部、湖南、四川东南部及中部、西藏东南部、甘肃南部、广西、广东等地海拔300-1100米地带的荫湿溪谷两旁或林内。用途(Use):木材材质细密,可供雕刻、器具、农具及细木加工等用。叶常绿,上面深绿色,下面有明显的白色气孔带,种子熟时假种皮红色、下垂,极美观,可作庭园树。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Amentotaxus argotaenia (Hance) Pilger, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54: 41. 1916.
穗花杉 sui hua shan | Taxaceae  | Amentotaxus
Shrubs or small trees to 7 m. Leafy branchlets ascending or suberect, broadly rectangular to oblong-elliptic in outline, 4.5-8 × 8-15 cm, axis green in 1st year, greenish yellow to yellowish red in 2nd and 3rd years, quadrangular or subterete in cross section. Leaves borne at 45-95° to branchlet axis, subsessile or petiole to 3 mm, dark green adaxially, linear or linear-lanceolate, falcate or ± straight, 2-11 cm × 5-11 mm, leathery, with sclereids, mottled adaxially when fresh, rugose with transverse striations at ca. 90° to midvein when dry, midvein raised adaxially, scarcely so abaxially, 1-1.2 mm wide with a very narrow, indistinct green band 0.15-0.2 mm wide on either side, whole midvein band 1.2-2 mm wide, stomatal bands white, 1-2 mm wide, narrower than marginal bands, of 15-25 rows, marginal bands 1.4-3 mm wide, base cuneate to attenuate, asymmetric, margin flat or very narrowly revolute, apex dark, callose, rounded to sharply triangular, obtuse on basal 1-4 (often more) leaves of each branchlet, often acuminate on others. Pollen-cone racemes borne (1 or)2-4(-10) together, 1.5-6.5 cm; cones in ca. 12 pairs, ovoid, ca. 3.5 × 2.5-3.2 mm; bracts ca. 6 at base of otherwise naked peduncle, distal bract ca. 2.5 × 2 mm, keeled; microsporophylls 6-8, peltate, each with (2 or)3(-5) pollen sacs. Seed-bearing structures with peduncle to ca. 2/3 × length of subtending leaf. Aril bright red when ripe. Seed finally red, narrowly obovoid-ellipsoid, 1.9-2.6 × 1-1.3 cm, with small, mucronulate apex; peduncle 1.1-1.4 cm, compressed-quadrangular, dilated below bracts, naked. Pollination Apr, seed maturity Oct. 2n = 24.
Limestone mountains, forests, ravines, shady and damp stream banks; 300-1100 m. Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, W Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, NW Jiangxi, C and SE Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, S Zhejiang [N Vietnam]
A vulnerable species in China.
H. L. Li (J. Arnold. Arbor. 33: 195. 1952) separated plants from W Hubei and Sichuan as Amentotaxus cathayensis, on the basis of leaf shape and length, and the stomatal bands being narrower (15-20 rows of stomata), instead of broader (22-25 rows in A. argotaenia), than the marginal bands. Amentotaxus cathayensis has not usually been accepted because these characters are not constant, although the stomatal band character did usually separate the two taxa in the sample examined by the authors. They can also be differentiated by presence (A. cathayensis) or absence (A. argotaenia) of a distinct petiole 1-3 mm. More research is needed to settle the status of A. cathayensis, which is here included provisionally in the synonymy of var. argotaenia.
 
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