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长叶松Pinus palustris

时间:2013-07-15 15:55来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
长叶松,Pinus palustris


中文名(Chinese Name):长叶松
学名(Scientific Name):Pinus palustris Mill.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):大王松
异名Synonym):Pinus australis F. Michx.  Pinus australis var. excelsa (Booth ex J. Forbes) Carrière  Pinus palustris var. excelsa Booth ex J. Forbes  Pinus australis var. filius Michx.  Pinus palmieri Manetti ex Gordon  Pinus palustris subsp. neogigantea Silba  Pinus taeda var. palustris (Mill.) Castigl.
科属(Family & Genus):松科Pinaceae松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,在原产地高达45米,胸径1.2米;枝向上开展或近平展,树冠宽圆锥形或近伞形;树皮暗灰褐色,裂成鳞状薄块片脱落;枝条每年生长一轮,稀生长数轮; 小枝粗壮,橙褐色;冬芽粗大,银白色,窄矩圆形或圆柱形,顶端尖,无树脂;芽鳞长披针形。针叶3针一束,长20-45厘米,径约2毫米,刚硬,先端尖;横切面三角形,二型,皮下层细胞,树脂道3-7个,多内生;叶鞘长约2.5厘米。球果窄卵状圆柱形,有树脂,成熟前绿色,熟时暗褐色,长15-25厘米;种鳞的鳞盾肥厚、显著隆起,横脊明显,鳞脐宽短,具坚硬锐利的尖刺;种子大,长约1.2厘米,具长翅,种翅长约3.7厘米。幼苗最初几年苗茎很短,呈禾草状。
分布(Distribution):原产美国东南沿海及亚热带南部
用途(Use):木材坚实,耐用。可供建筑及家具等用。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4 Page 19
Pinus palustris Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Pinus no. 14. 1768.
长叶松 chang ye song | Pinaceae  | Pinus
Pinus australis F. Michaux; P. longifolia Salisbury.
Trees to 45 m tall; trunk to 1.2 m d.b.h. in native range; bark orange-brown, with coarse, oblong, scaly plates; crown rounded; branches spreading-descending, upcurved at tips; branchlets orange-brown, aging darker brown, stout, rough; winter buds silvery white, ovoid, 3-4 cm, scales fringed at margin. Needles spreading-recurved, (2 or)3 per bundle, yellow-green, slightly twisted, 20-45 cm × ca. 1.5 mm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, base with persistent sheath 2-2.5(-3) cm, margin finely serrulate. Seed cones solitary or paired toward branchlets tips, sessile or rarely shortly pedunculate, dark brown, ovoid-cylindric when open, 15-25 cm, maturing in 2 years, then quickly shedding seeds and falling. Apophyses dull, nearly rhombic, slightly thickened and raised, strongly cross keeled; umbo broadly triangular, with a short, stiff, reflexed prickle. Seeds pale brown, mottled darker, truncate-obovoid, ca. 1 cm; wing 3-4 cm.
Cultivated. Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi (Lu Shan), Shandong (Qingdao Shi), Zhejiang [native to SE United States]
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