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建兰 Cymbidium ensifolium

时间:2013-10-23 17:08来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):建兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Cymbidium ensifolium (Linn.) Sw. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 四季兰 异名( Synonym ): Cymbidium gyokuchin var. arrogans (Hayata) S. S. Ying
中文名(Chinese Name):建兰
学名(Scientific Name):Cymbidium ensifolium (Linn.) Sw.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):四季兰
异名(Synonym):Cymbidium gyokuchin var. arrogans (Hayata) S. S. Ying  Cymbidium arrogans Hayata  Cymbidium micans Schauer  Epidendrum ensifolium L.  Cymbidium ensifolium var. xiphiifolium (Lindl.) S. S. Ying  Cymbidium ensifolium var. yakibaran (Makino) Y. S. Wu et S. C. Chen  Cymbidium misericors Hayata  Jensoa ensata (Thunb.) Raf.  Limodorum ensatum Thunb.  Cymbidium ensifolium f. falcatum T. K. Yen  Cymbidium prompovenium Z. J. Liu et J. N. Zhang  Cymbidium yongfuense Z. J. Liu et J. N. Zhang  Liuguishania taiwanensis Z. J. Liu et J. N. Zhang  Cymbidium rubrigemmum Hayata  Cymbidium kanran var. misericors (Hayata) S. S. Ying  Cymbidium longipes Z. J. Liu et J. Y. Zhang  Cymbidium xiphiifolium Lindl.  Cymbidium yakibaran Makino  Cymbidium ensifolium var. rubrigemmum (Hayata) T. S. Liu et H. J. Su  Cymbidium ensifolium var. striatum Lindl.  Cymbidium ensifolium var. susin T. K. Yen  Cymbidium ensifolium f. arcuatum T.C.Yen
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)兰属
形态特征(Description):地生植物;假鳞茎卵球形,长1.5-2.5厘米,宽1-1.5厘米,包藏于叶基之内。叶2-4 (-6)枚,带形,有光泽,长30-60厘米,宽1-1.5(-2.5)厘米,前部边缘有时有细齿,关节位于距基部2-4厘米处。花葶从假鳞茎基部发出,直立,长20-35厘米或更长,但一般短于叶;总状花序具3-9(-13)朵花;花苞片除最下面的1枚长可达1.5-2厘米外,其余的长5-8毫米,一般不及花梗和子房长度的1/3,至多不超过1/2;花梗和子房长2-2.5(-3)厘米;花常有香气,色泽变化较大,通常为浅黄绿色而具紫斑;萼片近狭长圆形或狭椭圆形,长2.3-2.8厘米,宽5-8毫米;侧萼片常向下斜展;花瓣狭椭圆形或狭卵状椭圆形,长1.5-2.4厘米,宽5-8毫米,近平展;唇瓣近卵形,长1.5-2.3厘米,略3裂;侧裂片直立,多少围抱蕊柱,上面有小乳突;中裂片较大,卵形,外弯,边缘波状,亦具小乳突;唇盘上2条纵褶片从基部延伸至中裂片基部,上半部向内倾斜并靠合,形成短管;蕊柱长1-1.4厘米,稍向前弯曲,两侧具狭翅;花粉团4个,成2对,宽卵形。蒴果狭椭圆形,长5-6厘米,宽约2厘米。花期通常为6-10月。
分布(Distribution):产我国中南部,广泛分布于东南亚和南亚各国,北至日本。生于海拔600~1800米疏林下、灌丛中、山谷旁或草丛中
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 260, 263, 274  
Cymbidium ensifolium (Linnaeus) Swartz, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 2. 6: 77. 1799.
建兰 jian lan| Orchidaceae  | Cymbidium
Epidendrum ensifolium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 954. 1753; Cymbidium arrogans Hayata; C. ensifolium f. arcuatum T. K. Yen; C. ensifolium f. falcatum T. K. Yen; C. ensifolium var. misericors (Hayata) T. P. Lin; C. ensifolium var. rubrigemmum (Hayata) T. S. Liu & H. J. Su; C. ensifolium var. striatum Lindley; C. ensifolium var. susin T. K. Yen; C. ensifolium var. xiphiifolium (Lindley) S. S. Ying; C. ensifolium var. yakibaran (Makino) Y. S. Wu & S. C. Chen; C. gyokuchin Makino var. arrogans (Hayata) S. S. Ying; C. kanran Makino var. misericors (Hayata) S. S. Ying; C. micans Schauer; C. misericors Hayata; C. prompovenium Z. J. Liu & J. N. Zhang; C. rubrigemmum Hayata; C. xiphiifolium Lindley; C. yakibaran Makino; C. yongfuense Z. J. Liu & J. N. Zhang; Jensoa ensata (Thunberg) Rafinesque; Limodorum ensatum Thunberg; Liuguishania taiwanensis Z. J. Liu & J. N. Zhang.
Plants terrestrial, autotrophic. Pseudobulbs ovoid, 1.5-2.5 × 1-1.5 cm, enclosed in leaf bases. Leaves 2-4(-6), lorate, 30-60 × 1-1.5(-2.5) cm, articulate 2-4 cm from base, margin sometimes serrate toward apex, apex acute. Inflorescence arising from base of pseudobulb, erect, 20-35 cm or longer, but usually shorter than leaves; rachis 3-9(-13)-flowered; floral bracts 5-8 mm and mostly less than 1/2 length of ovary, though basal bract to 20 mm. Flowers fragrant, variable in color, usually pale yellowish green, spotted with purple, mid-lobe with a few red spots; pedicel and ovary 20-25(-30) mm. Sepals narrowly oblong or narrowly elliptic, 23-28 × 5-8 mm, apex acute; lateral sepals usually oblique. Petals spreading horizontally, narrowly elliptic or narrowly ovate-elliptic, 15-24 × 5-8 mm, apex acute; lip subovate, 15-23 mm, not fused to basal margins of column, obscurely 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect and loosely clasping column; mid-lobe recurved, ovate, 8-12 × 7-10 mm, margin kinked; disk minutely papillate, with 2 fleshy lamellae; lamellae extending almost to base of mid-lobe, converging in their apical half and forming a short tube. Column slightly arcuate, 10-14 mm, narrowly winged; pollinia 4, in 2 pairs, broadly ovoid. Capsule narrowly ellipsoid, 50-60 × ca. 20 mm. Fl. usually Jun-Oct, fr. Dec-Feb. 2n = 40*.
Open forests, thickets, grassy places along valleys; 600-1800 m. Anhui, N Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, W Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, SW Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, SE and W Yunnan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
Cymbidium ×oblancifolium Z. J. Liu & S. C. Chen, a natural hybrid of C. ensifolium and C. lancifolium, was recently described (Forestry Stud. China 3: 23. 2000).




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