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杜鹃兰Cremastra appendiculata

时间:2013-10-23 16:57来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):杜鹃兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Aplectrum appendiculatum (D. Don) F. Maek. Cymbidium
中文名(Chinese Name):杜鹃兰
学名(Scientific Name):Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Aplectrum appendiculatum (D. Don) F. Maek.  Cymbidium appendiculatum D. Don  Cremastra mitrata A. Gray  Cremastra triloba Hayata  Cremastra lanceolata (Kraenzl.) Schltr.  Cremastra variabilis (Blume) Nakai  Cremastra wallichiana Lindl.  Hyacinthorchis variabilis Blume  Cremastra appendiculata var. triloba (Hayata) S. S. Ying  Cremastra appendiculata var. variabilis (Blume) I. D. Lund  Cremastra bifolia C. L. Tso
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)杜鹃兰属
形态特征(Description):假鳞茎卵球形或近球形,长1.5-3厘米,直径1-3厘米,密接,有关节,外被撕裂成纤维状的残存鞘。叶通常1枚,生于假鳞茎顶端,狭椭圆形、近椭圆形或倒披针状狭椭圆形,长18-34厘米,宽5-8厘米,先端渐尖,基部收狭,近楔形;叶柄长7-17厘米,下半部常为残存的鞘所包蔽。花葶从假鳞茎上部节上发出,近直立,长27-70厘米;总状花序长(5-)10-25厘米,具5-22朵花;花苞片披针形至卵状披针形,长(3-) 5-12毫米;花梗和子房(3-) 5-9毫米;花常偏花序一侧,多少下垂,不完全开放,有香气,狭钟形,淡紫褐色;萼片倒披针形,从中部向基部骤然收狭而成近狭线形,全长2-3厘米,上部宽3.5-5毫米,先端急尖或渐尖;侧萼片略斜歪;花瓣倒披针形或狭披针形,向基部收狭成狭线形,长1.8-2.6厘米,上部宽3-3.5毫米,先端渐尖;唇瓣与花瓣近等长,线形,上部1/4处3裂;侧裂片近线形,长4-5毫米,宽约1毫米;中裂片卵形至狭长圆形,长6-8毫米,宽3-5毫米,基部在两枚侧裂片之间具1枚肉质突起;肉质突起大小变化甚大,上面有时有疣状小突起;蕊柱细长,长1.8-2.5厘米,顶端略扩大,腹面有时有很狭的翅。蒴果近椭圆形,下垂,长2.5-3厘米,宽1-1.3厘米。花期5-6月,果期9-12月。
分布(Distribution):产山西、陕西、甘肃、江苏、安徽、浙江、江西、台湾、河南、湖北、湖南、广东、四川、贵州、云南和西藏。生于海拔500~2900米林下湿地或沟边湿地上。东南亚及日本也有分布。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 249   
Cremastra appendiculata (D. Don) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo). 18: 24. 1904.
杜鹃兰 du juan lan| Orchidaceae  | Cremastra
Plants 20-70 cm tall. Pseudobulb ovoid or subglobose, 1.5-3 × 1-3 cm, few noded. Leaf 1 or rarely 2, narrowly elliptic to narrowly oblanceolate-elliptic, 18-34 × 4-8 cm, mainly 3-veined, base subcuneate, apex acute or acuminate; petiole-like base 7-17 cm. Inflorescence 25-70 cm; rachis (5-)10-25 cm, subdensely to densely 5-22-flowered; floral bracts lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, (3-)5-10 mm. Flowers fragrant, pendulous, not opening widely, pale purple to orange-brown, narrowly campanulate, petals and lip with darker spots; pedicel and ovary (3-)5-15 mm. Sepals narrowly oblanceolate-spatulate, 20-34 × 2-5 mm, apex acute or acuminate; lateral sepals slightly oblique. Petals narrowly oblanceolate, 18-32 × 1.5-3.5 mm, apex acuminate; lip linear, 20-34 × 2-3.5 mm (though wider across lobes at apex), saccate at base, 3-lobed at apex; lateral lobes linear to narrowly oblong, 4-6 × ca. 1 mm, apex obtuse; mid-lobe ovate to narrowly oblong, 6-8 × 3-5 mm, apex acute or obtuse; disk with a fleshy callus at base of mid-lobe; callus variable in shape and size, 1-5 mm, sparingly wrinkled or verruculose. Column 18-26 mm, slender, slightly dilated at apex, with or without narrow ventral wings below anther; anther 1-3 mm. Capsule pendulous, ellipsoid, 25-30 × 8-13 mm. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Sep-Dec. 2n = 24, 42, 48, 52.
Wet places in forests, along valleys; 400-2900 m. Anhui, Chongqing, S Gansu, N Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, S Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, SE Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].




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