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流苏虾脊兰 Calanthe alpina

时间:2013-10-23 16:02来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):流苏虾脊兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Calanthe alpina Hook. f. ex Lindl. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 高山虾脊兰、羽唇根节兰 异名( Synonym ): Calanthe fimbriatomarginata Fu
中文名(Chinese Name):流苏虾脊兰
学名(Scientific Name):Calanthe alpina Hook. f. ex Lindl.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):高山虾脊兰、羽唇根节兰
异名(Synonym):Calanthe fimbriatomarginata Fukuy.  Calanthe buccinifera Rolfe  Calanthe fimbriata Franch.  Calanthe schlechteri H. Hara  Alismorkis alpina (Hook.f. ex Lindl.) Kuntze  Calanthe alpina var. fimbriata (Franch.) F.Maek.  Alismorchis alpina (Hook. f. ex Lindl.) Kuntze
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)虾脊兰属
形态特征(Description):植株高达50厘米。假鳞茎短小,狭圆锥状,粗约7毫米,去年生的假鳞茎密被残留纤维。假茎不明显或有时长达7厘米,具3枚鞘。叶3枚,在花期全部展开,椭圆形或倒卵状椭圆形,长11-26厘米,宽3-6(-9)厘米,先端圆钝并具短尖或锐尖,基部收狭为鞘状短柄,两面无毛。花葶从叶间抽出,通常1个,偶尔2个,直立,高出叶层之外,被稀疏的短毛;总状花序长3-12厘米,疏生3至10余朵花;花苞片宿存,狭披针形,比花梗和子房短,长约1.5厘米,先端渐尖,无毛;花梗和子房长约2厘米,子房稍粗并多少弧曲,疏被短毛;花被全体无毛;萼片和花瓣白色带绿色先端或浅紫堇色,先端急尖或渐尖而呈芒状,无毛;中萼片近椭圆形,长1.5-2厘米,中部宽5-6毫米,具5条脉;侧萼片卵状披针形,等长于中萼片,但较宽,具5条脉;花瓣狭长圆形至卵状披针形,长12-13毫米,中部宽4-4.5毫米,具3条脉;唇瓣浅白色,后部黄色,前部具紫红色条纹,与蕊柱中部以下的蕊柱翅合生,半圆状扇形,不裂,长约8毫米,基部宽截形,宽约1.5厘米,前端边缘具流苏,先端微凹并具细尖;距浅黄色或浅紫堇色,圆筒形,劲直,等长或长于花梗和子房,长1.5-3.5厘米,中部粗3-4毫米,基部较粗,末端钝;蕊柱白色,长约8毫米,上端扩大,无毛;蕊喙2裂,裂片近镰刀状,长约1毫米,先端锐尖;药帽在前端收狭,先端稍钝;花粉团倒卵球形,长1.3毫米,具短的花粉团柄;粘盘小,近长圆形。蒴果倒卵状椭圆形,长2厘米,粗约1.5厘米。花期6-9月,果期11月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西、甘肃、台湾、四川、云南和西藏,于海拔1500~3500米的山地林下和草坡上。印度及日本也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 293, 298   
Calanthe alpina J. D. Hooker ex Lindley, Fol. Orchid. 6-7(Calanthe): 4. 1855.
流苏虾脊兰 liu su xia ji lan| Orchidaceae  | Calanthe
Alismorkis alpina (J. D. Hooker ex Lindley) Kuntze; Calanthe buccinifera Rolfe; C. fimbriata Franchet; C. fimbriatomarginata Fukuyama; C. schlechteri H. Hara.
Plants 25-50 cm tall. Rhizome inconspicuous. Pseudobulbs narrowly conic, small, ca. 7 mm in diam. Leaves 3, well developed at anthesis, not deciduous; blade elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 11-26 × 3-6(-9) cm, apex obtuse-rounded and mucronate or acute; petiole-like base sheathing, sometimes forming a pseudostem to ca. 7 cm. Scape 1 or rarely 2, arising from leaf axils, erect, 30-50 cm, sparsely puberulent; rachis 3-12 cm, laxly to densely 3- to more than 10-flowered; floral bracts persistent, narrowly lanceolate, ca. 1.5 cm, glabrous, apex acuminate. Flowers pale yellow-green, with pink-purple blotches and striations; pedicel and ovary ca. 20 mm, sparsely puberulent. Dorsal sepal subelliptic, 15-20 × 5-6 mm, 5-veined, apex aristate; lateral sepals ovate-lanceolate, 15-20 × 6-7 mm, 5-veined, apex aristate. Petals narrowly oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 12-13 × 4-4.5 mm, 3-veined, apex acute to acuminate; lip basally adnate to base of column wings, pale greenish white, basal half yellow, apical half with purplish red striations, suborbicular-flabellate, ca. 8 × 15 mm, base broadly truncate, unlobed, apical margin fimbriate, apex emarginate; spur straight, yellow or pale violet, cylindric, 15-35 × 3-5 mm, apex obtuse. Column white, ca. 8 mm, dilated at apex, glabrous; rostellum 2-lobed; lobes ca. 1 mm; pollinia obovoid, ca. 1.3 mm, with short caudicles; viscidium suboblong, small. Capsule obovoid-elliptic, ca. 2 × 1.5 cm. Fl. Nov. 2n = 40, 42.
Forests, grassy slopes; 1500-3500 m. S Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, S and SE Xizang, W Yunnan [Bhutan, NE India, Japan, Nepal].


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