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白及 Bletilla striata

时间:2013-10-23 15:44来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):白及 学名( Scientific Name ): Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Rchb. f. 英文名( English Common Name ): urn orchid 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Bletilla hyacinthina (J. E. Sm.) Rchb. f. Bletil
中文名(Chinese Name):白及
学名(Scientific Name):Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Rchb. f.
英文名(English Common Name):urn orchid
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Bletilla hyacinthina (J. E. Sm.) Rchb. f.  Bletilla striata var. gebina (Lindl.) Rchb. f.  Bletilla gebina (Lindl.) Rchb. f.  Jimensia striata (Thunb. ex A. Murray) Garay et R. E. Schult.  Cymbidium hyacinthinum J. E. Sm.  Bletia hyacinthina (J. E. Sm.) R. Br.  Bletia striata (Thunb. ex A. Murray) Druce  Bletia gebina Lindl.  Sobralia bletioides Brongn. ex Decne.  Polytoma inodora Lour. ex B.A.Gomes  Jimensia nervosa Raf.  Limodorum hyacinthinum (Sm.) Donn  Calanthe gebina (Lindl.) Lindl.  Cymbidium striatum (Thunb.) Sw.  Epidendrum striatum (Thunb.) Thunb.  Gyas humilis Salisb.  Bletilla striata var. albomarginata Makino  Bletilla striata f. gebina (Lindl.) Ohwi  Bletia hyacinthina var. gebina (Lindl.) Blume
科属Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)白及属
形态特征(Description):植株高18-60厘米。假鳞茎扁球形,上面具荸荠似的环带,富粘性。茎粗壮,劲直。叶4-6枚,狭长圆形或披针形,长8-29厘米,宽1.5-4厘米,先端渐尖,基部收狭成鞘并抱茎。花序具3-10朵花,常不分枝或极罕分枝;花序轴或多或少呈“之”字状曲折;花苞片长圆状披针形,长2-2.5厘米,开花时常凋落;花大,紫红色或粉红色;萼片和花瓣近等长,狭长圆形,长25-30毫米,宽6-8毫米,先端急尖;花瓣较萼片稍宽;唇瓣较萼片和花瓣稍短,倒卵状椭圆形,长23-28毫米,白色带紫红色,具紫色脉;唇盘上面具5条纵褶片,从基部伸至中裂片近顶部,仅在中裂片上面为波状;蕊柱长18-20毫米,柱状,具狭翅,稍弓曲。花期4-5月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西、甘肃、江苏、安徽、浙江、江西、福建、湖北、湖南、广东、广西、四川和贵州。生于海拔100~3200米的常绿阔叶林下,栎树林或针叶林下、路边草丛或岩石缝中,朝鲜及日本也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 209, 210   
Bletilla striata (Thunberg) H. G. Reichenbach, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin). 36: 75. 1878.
白及 bai ji| Orchidaceae  | Bletilla
Limodorum striatum Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14, 816. 1784; Bletia gebina Lindley; B. hyacinthina (Smith) Aiton; B. hyacinthina var. gebina (Lindley) Blume; B. striata (Thunberg) Druce; Bletilla elegantula (Kraenzlin) Garay & Romero; B. gebina (Lindley) H. G. Reichenbach; B. hyacinthina (Smith) H. G. Reichenbach; B. striata var. albomarginata Makino; B. striata f. gebina (Lindley) Ohwi; B. striata var. gebina (Lindley) H. G. Reichenbach; Calanthe gebina (Lindley) Lindley; Coelogyne elegantula Kraenzlin; Cymbidium hyacinthinum Smith; C. striatum (Thunberg) Swartz; Epidendrum striatum (Thunberg) Thunberg; Jimensia nervosa Rafinesque, nom. illeg. superfl.; J. striata (Thunberg) Garay & R. E. Schultes; Limodorum hyacinthinum (Smith) Donn.
Plants 18-60 cm tall. Rhizome dorsiventrally compressed, subglobose or irregularly shaped, 1-3 cm in diam. Stem 3-25 cm, stout, enclosing several long tubular sheaths, 4-6-leaved. Leaves widely spaced or clustered toward apex of stem, narrowly oblong to lanceolate-elliptic, 8-29 × 1.5-4 cm, base contracted into amplexicaul sheath, apex acuminate. Peduncle 14-34 cm, slender, usually with 1 sheathing bract; rachis flexuous, sometimes pendulous, 2-7 cm, simple or sometimes branched, 3-10-flowered; floral bracts usually deciduous at anthesis, oblong-lanceolate, 6-20 mm. Flowers erect or spreading, purplish red or pink, large; pedicel and ovary twisted, 10-24 mm. Sepals purplish red or pink, narrowly oblong, 14-30 × 4-8 mm, lateral ones slightly oblique, apex acute. Petals similar to but slightly larger than sepals, purplish red or pink, 14-32 × 4-11 mm, apex acute; lip white, tinged with purplish red, with purplish veins, obovate-elliptic, 14-28 × 10-18 mm, 3-lobed above middle; lateral lobes erect and embracing column, triangular to suborbicular, apex acute; mid-lobe square, 3-8 × 2-6 mm, margin slightly crisped, apex truncate; disk with 5 longitudinal lamellae extending from base of lip almost to apex of mid-lobe; lamellae undulate only on mid-lobe. Column subterete, 14-20 mm, slender, dilated toward apex, with narrow wings; rostellum large. Capsule to 3.4 cm. Fl. Apr-May. 2n = 32, 38, 76.
Evergreen broad-leaved forests, Quercus forests, coniferous forests, grassy places, crevices; 100-3200 m. Anhui, Fujian, SE Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Myanmar].




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