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坛花兰Acanthephippium sylhetense

时间:2013-10-23 15:20来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):坛花兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Acanthephippium sylhetense Lindl. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 钟馗兰、台湾坛花兰 异名( Synonym ): Acanthephippium yamamotoi Hayata Acanth
中文名(Chinese Name):坛花兰
学名(Scientific Name):Acanthephippium sylhetense Lindl.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):钟馗兰、台湾坛花兰
异名(Synonym):Acanthephippium yamamotoi Hayata  Acanthephippium pictum Fukuy.  Acanthephippium ringiflorum Griff.  Acanthephippium curtisii var. albidum Linden
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)坛花兰属
形态特征(Description):假鳞茎卵状圆柱形,长达15厘米,基部粗1.5-4厘米,具2-4个节,被数枚大型鳞片状鞘;鞘膜质,彼此套叠,宽卵形,先端急尖,在假鳞茎由下至上逐渐变大。叶2-4枚,互生于假鳞茎上端,厚纸质,长椭圆形,长达35厘米,宽8-11厘米,先端渐尖,基部收狭为长2厘米的柄,通常具5条主脉。花葶肉质而肥厚,长15-20厘米,基部具数枚宽卵状披针形的鳞片状鞘;总状花序具3-4朵花;花苞片深茄紫色,凹陷,卵形或长圆形,长2-2.5厘米,先端急尖;花梗和子房浅茄紫色,长3-4厘米;花白色或稻草黄色,内面在中部以上具紫褐色斑点;中萼片近椭圆形,长2-2.5厘米,宽1厘米,上部外折,先端钝,具7条脉,侧萼片斜三角形或镰刀状长圆形,比中萼片长,上部外折,先端钝,基部歪斜而贴生在蕊柱足上,具7条脉;萼囊短而宽钝;花瓣藏于萼筒内,近卵状椭圆形,长2-2.5厘米,宽1.1厘米,先端钝,基部收狭为爪,具7条脉;唇瓣3裂,以长约2厘米的爪贴生于蕊柱足的末端,爪黄色带黄褐色斑纹;侧裂片白色,近直立,镰刀状,围抱蕊柱;中裂片柠檬黄色,肉质,舌形,向外下弯,比侧裂片长,先端钝、全缘;唇盘白色带紫褐色斑点,具3-4条上缘带齿的褶片状脊;蕊柱白色,长约1.5厘米;蕊柱足白色带紫晕,长约2厘米,与蕊柱成直角弯曲。花期4-7月。
分布(Distribution):产台湾和云南,地生兰,生于海拔540~800米的密林下或沟谷林下阴湿处。东南亚也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 310   
Acanthephippium sylhetense Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 177. 1833.
坛花兰 tan hua lan| Orchidaceae  | Acanthephippium
Acanthephippium curtisii H. G. Reichenbach var. albidum Linden; A. pictum Fukuyama; A. ringiflorum Griffith; A. sylhetense var. pictum (Fukuyama) Hashimoto; A. yamamotoi Hayata.
Plants to 50 cm tall. Roots elongate. Pseudobulb ovoid-cylindric, 7-15 × 1.5-4 cm, 2-4-noded, with several large scalelike sheaths, 2-4-leaved. Leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 30-40 × 8-11 cm, 5-veined, apex acuminate; petiole-like base ca. 2 cm, sheathing. Inflorescence 15-20 cm, fleshy, with several broadly ovate-lanceolate sheaths at base; rachis densely 3-5-flowered; floral bracts deep purple, ovate to oblong, concave, 2-2.5 cm, apex acute. Flowers white or yellow with purplish brown spots, campanulate-tubular, 40-45 mm; pedicel and ovary pale purple, 30-40 mm, sparsely pubescent. Sepals connate at base and connivent above, forming an urceolate tube with apices free; dorsal sepal subelliptic, 20-30 × 10-15 mm, 7-veined, apex obtuse; lateral sepals triangular to oblong, oblique, ca. 40 × 17-20 mm, 7-veined, base adnate to column foot, apex obtuse. Petals elliptic-obovate, 20-25 × 10-14 mm, fleshy, 5-veined, apex obtuse; lip adnate to apex of column foot, ca. 15 mm, fleshy, 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, white, falcate, embracing column, ca. 8 mm; mid-lobe lemon-yellow, ligulate, 6-8 mm, apex obtuse, strongly recurved; disk white with purplish brown spots, fleshy, with 3-5 toothed lamellae; mentum formed by bases of lateral sepals and column foot, yellow with yellowish brown stripes, saccate, short, apex obtuse-rounded. Column white, ca. 15 mm; column foot white, tinged with purple, ca. 40 mm, inflexed at its mid-point through an angle of 30-40°, adnate to base of lateral sepals for ca. 1/2 of its length, slightly recurved toward apex; anther ca. 3 mm; larger pollinia ca. 2 mm, smaller pollinia ca. 1 mm; rostellum truncate; stigma broadly obovoid. Capsule to 60 mm. Fl. Apr-Jul.
Damp places in dense forests, along valleys; 500-800 m. Taiwan, S Yunnan [Bangladesh, NE India, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand].




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