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黄芦木Berberis amurensis

时间:2018-06-26 15:58来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 黄芦木 学名( Scientific Name ): Berberis amurensis Rupr. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 大叶小檗 异名( Synonym ): Berberis amurensis f. bretschneideri (Rehder) Ohwi Berber
中文名(Chinese Name):黄芦木
学名(Scientific Name):Berberis amurensis Rupr.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):大叶小檗
异名(Synonym):Berberis amurensis f. bretschneideri (Rehder) Ohwi  Berberis amurensis f. brevifolia (Nakai) Ohwi  Berberis amurensis f. latifolia (Nakai) W.Lee  Berberis amurensis var. brevifolia Nakai  Berberis amurensis var. japonica (Regel) Rehder  Berberis amurensis var. latifolia Nakai  Berberis bretschneideri Rehder  Berberis regeliana Koehne ex C.K.Schneid.  Berberis vulgaris var. amurensis (Rupr.) Regel  Berberis vulgaris var. japonica Regel
科属Family & Genus):小檗科Berberidaceae小檗属Berberis
形态特征Description):落叶灌木,高2-3.5米。老枝淡黄色或灰色,稍具棱槽,无疣点;节间2.5-7厘米;茎刺三分叉,稀单一,长1-2厘米。叶纸质,倒卵状椭圆形、椭圆形或卵形、长5-10厘米,宽2.5-5厘米,先端急尖或圆形,基部楔形,上面暗绿色,中脉和侧脉凹陷,网脉不显,背面淡绿色,无光泽,中脉和侧脉微隆起,网脉微显,叶缘平展,每边具40-60细刺齿;叶柄长5-15毫米。总状花序具10-25朵花,长4-10厘米,无毛,总梗长1-3厘米;花梗长5-10毫米;花黄色;萼片2轮,外萼片倒卵形,长约3毫米,宽约2毫米,内萼片与外萼片同形,长5.5-6毫米,宽3-3.4毫米;花瓣椭圆形,长4.5-5毫米,宽2.5-3毫米,先端浅缺裂,基部稍呈爪,具2枚分离腺体;雄蕊长约2.5毫米,药隔先端不延伸,平截;胚珠2枚。浆果长圆形,长约10毫米,直径约6毫米,红色,顶端不具宿存花柱,不被白粉或仅基部微被霜粉。花期4-5月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产于黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、河北、内蒙古、山东、河南、山西、陕西、甘肃。日本、朝鲜、俄罗斯(西伯利亚)也有分布。生于山地灌丛中、沟谷、林缘、疏林中、溪旁或岩石旁。海拔1100-2850米。
用途(Use):根皮和茎皮含小檗碱,供药用。有清热燥湿,泻火解毒的功能。主治痢疾、黄疽、白带、关节肿痛、口疮、黄水疮等,可作黄连代用品。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 719, 762
Berberis amurensis Ruprecht, Bull. Cl. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg. 15: 260. 1857.
黄芦木 huang lu mu| Berberidaceae  | Berberis
Berberis vulgaris Linnaeus var. amurensis (Ruprecht) Regel.
Shrubs, deciduous, 2-3.5 m tall. Branches pale yellow or gray, slightly sulcate, not verruculose; internodes 2.5-7 cm; spines 3-fid, rarely simple, 1-2 cm. Petiole 5-10 mm; leaf blade abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green, obovate-elliptic, elliptic, or ovate, 5-10 × 2.5-5 cm, papery, abaxially with slightly raised midvein and lateral veins, reticulate veins slightly conspicuous, adaxially with impressed midvein and lateral veins, reticulate veins inconspicuous, base cuneate, margin 40-60-spinulose-serrulate on each side, apex acute or rounded. Inflorescence a raceme, 10-25-flowered, 4-10 cm including peduncle 1-3 cm. Pedicels 5-10 mm. Sepals in 2 whorls; outer sepals obovate, ca. 3 × 2 mm; inner sepals obovate, 5.5-6 × 3-3.4 mm. Petals elliptic, 4.5-5 × 2.5-3 mm, base slightly clawed, with separate glands, apex emarginate. Stamens ca. 2.5 mm; anther connective not prolonged, truncate. Ovules 2. Berry red, oblong, ca. 10 × 6 mm, not or slightly blue pruinose at base, style not persistent. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 28, 42.
Thickets, sparse forests, valleys, forest margins, streamsides, sides of rocks; 1100-2900 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi [Japan, Korea, Russia (Siberia)].




 


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