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赪桐Clerodendrum japonicum

时间:2013-11-10 11:04来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名 ( Chinese Name ): 赪桐 学名 ( Scientific Name ): Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet 英文名 ( English Common Name ): Japanese glorybower 别名 ( Chinese Common Name ): 贞桐花、状元红 异名 ( Synonym ): Clerodendrum sq
中文名Chinese Name):赪桐
学名Scientific Name):Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet
英文名English Common Name):Japanese glorybower
别名Chinese Common Name):贞桐花、状元红
异名Synonym):Clerodendrum squamatum Vahl  Clerodendrum kaempferi var. album (C. P'ei) Moldenke  Clerodendrum japonicum var. album C. P'ei  Clerodendrum darrisii H. Lév.  Volkameria japonica Thunb.  Volkameria kaempferi Jacquem.  Clerodendrum leveillei Fedde ex H. Lév.  Clerodendrum dentatum (Roxb.) Steud.  Clerodendrum illustre N.E.Br.  Clerodendrum imperialis Carrière  Clerodendrum japonicum f. album (C.Pei) Moldenke  Clerodendrum kaempferi f. album (C.Pei) Moldenke  Clerodendrum kaempferi f. salmoneum Moldenke  Volkameria coccinea (D.Dietr.) Schauer  Volkameria dentata Roxb.
科属Family & Genus):马鞭草科(Verbenaceae)大青属
形态特征Description):灌木,高1-4米;小枝四棱形,干后有较深的沟槽,老枝近于无毛或被短柔毛,同对叶柄之间密被长柔毛,枝干后不中空。叶片圆心形,长8-35厘米,宽6-27厘米,顶端尖或渐尖,基部心形,边缘有疏短尖齿,表面疏生伏毛,脉基具较密的锈褐色短柔毛,背面密具锈黄色盾形腺体,脉上有疏短柔毛;叶柄长0.5-15厘米,少可达27厘米,具较密的黄褐色短柔毛。二歧聚伞花序组成顶生,大而开展的圆锥花序,长15-34厘米,宽13-35厘米,花序的最后侧枝呈总状花序,长可达16厘米,苞片宽卵形、卵状披针形、倒卵状披针形、线状披针形,有柄或无柄,小苞片线形;花萼红色,外面疏被短柔毛,散生盾形腺体,长1-1.5厘米,深5裂,裂片卵形或卵状披针形,渐尖,长0.7-1.3厘米,开展,外面有1-3条细脉,脉上具短柔毛,内面无毛,有疏珠状腺点;花冠红色,稀白色,花冠管长1.7-2.2厘米,外面具微毛,里面无毛,顶端5裂,裂片长圆形,开展,长1-1.5厘米;雄蕊长约达花冠管的3倍;子房无毛,4室,柱头2浅裂,与雄蕊均长突出于花冠外。果实椭圆状球形,绿色或蓝黑色,径7-10毫米,常分裂成2-4个分核,宿萼增大,初包被果实,后向外反折呈星状。花果期5-11月。
分布(Distribution):产江苏、浙江、江西、湖南、福建、台湾、广东、广西、四川、贵州、云南,通常生于平原、山谷、溪边或疏林中。日本及亚洲南部也有分布。
用途(Use):全株药用,有祛风利湿、消肿散瘀的功效。云南作跌打、催生药,又治心慌心跳,用根、叶作皮肤止痒药;湖南用花治外伤止血。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 36
Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunberg) Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 1. 322. 1826.
赬桐 cheng tong  | Verbenaceae  | Clerodendrum
Volkameria japonica Thunberg, Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 3: 203. 1780; Clerodendrum darrisii H. Léveillé; C. esquirolii H. Léveillé; C. japonicum var. album P'ei; C. kaempferi (Jacquin) Siebold; C. kaempferi var. album (P'ei) Moldenke; C. squamatum Vahl; Volkameria kaempferi Jacquin.
Shrubs 1-4 m tall. Branchlets 4-angled, pubescent to subglabrous, nodes sometimes villous. Petiole 0.5-15(-27) cm, densely yellow-brown pubescent; leaf blade subcordate, 8-35 X 6-27 cm, sparsely pubescent, abaxially densely covered with numerous peltate glands often covered with a sand-colored secretion, base cordate, margin sparsely serrulate to dentate, apex acuminate to acute. Inflorescences terminal thyrses, 15-34 X 13-35 cm; bracts and bractlets usually reddish. Calyx red, 1-1.5 cm, deeply 5-lobed, pubescent, outside sandy glandular; lobes ovate-lanceolate to ovate, 0.7-1.3 cm. Corolla white or red, tube 1.5-2.2 cm; lobes oblong, 1-1.5 cm. Stamens and style 3 X or more longer than corolla tube. Fruiting calyx much longer than fruit, becoming reflexed. Drupes green when young, blue-black at maturity, subglobose, 7-10 mm in diam. Fl. and fr. May-Nov.
Thickets in valleys, along streams, in grassy openings; 100-1200 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangsu, S Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, S Zhejiang [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Vietnam]
Medicinal, ornamental.
 




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