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栀子Gardenia jasminoides

时间:2013-11-08 12:13来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):栀子 学名( Scientific Name ): Gardenia jasminoides Ellis 英文名( English Common Name ): Cape jasmine 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 水横枝、山黄枝 异名( Synonym ): Gardenia jasminoides f. variegata (Carr
中文名(Chinese Name):栀子
学名(Scientific Name):Gardenia jasminoides Ellis
英文名(English Common Name):Cape jasmine
别名(Chinese Common Name):水横枝、山黄枝
异名(Synonym):Gardenia jasminoides f. variegata (Carr) Nakai  Gardenia augusta (L.) Merr.  Gardenia florida L.  Gardenia jasminoides f. oblanceolata (Nakai) Nakai  Gardenia jasminoides f. ovalifolia (Sims) H. Hara  Gardenia jasminoides f. simpliciflora (Makino) Makino  Gardenia jasminoides var. boninensis (Nakai) Nakai  Gardenia jasminoides var. longisepala (Masam.) F. P. Metcalf  Gardenia radicans Thunb.  Gardenia schlechteri H. Lév.  Gardenia jasminoides f. maruba (Sieber ex Blume) Nakai ex Ishii  Varneria augusta L.  Genipa radicans (Thunb.) Baill.  Genipa grandiflora (Lour.) Baill.  Genipa florida (L.) Baill.  Warneria augusta L.  Gardenia pictorum Hassk.  Gardenia maruba Siebold ex Blume  Gardenia angustifolia Lodd.  Gardenia longisepala (Masam.) Masam.  Gardenia augusta var. plena Voigt  Gardenia augusta f. shanpinensis F.C.Ho  Gardenia jasminoides var. grandiflora (Lour.) Nakai  Gardenia jasminoides f. longicarpa Z.M.Xie & M.Okada  Gardenia florida f. thunbergii Makino  Gardenia jasminoides var. plena (Voigt) M.R.Almeida  Gardenia florida var. ovalifolia Sims  Gardenia augusta var. longisepala Masam.  Gardenia florida f. simpliciflora Makino  Gardenia jasminoides f. kueishanensis F.C.Ho  Gardenia jasminoides f. grandiflora (Lour.) Makino  Gardenia augusta var. kosyunensis Sasaki  Gardenia jasminoides var. ovalifolia (Sims) Nakai  Gardenia florida f. oblanceolata Nakai  Gardenia jasminoides var. maruba (Siebold ex Blume) Nakai  Gardenia jasminoides f. aureovariegata Nakai  Gardenia radicans var. simpliciflora (Makino) Nakai  Gardenia florida var. maruba (Siebold ex Blume) Matsum.  Gardenia angustifolia var. kosyunensis (Sasaki) Masam.  Gardenia florida var. radicans (Thunb.) Matsum.  Gardenia jasminoides var. variegata (Carrière) Makino  Gardenia florida var. plena Voigt  Gardenia jasminoides f. albomarginata H.Hara  Gardenia jasminoides f. albovariegata H.Hara  Gardenia augusta var. grandiflora (Lour.) Sasaki  Gardenia augusta var. ovalifolia (Sims) Sasaki  Gardenia florida var. grandiflora (Lour.) Franch. & Sav.  Gardenia radicans variegata Carriere  Gardenia florida variegata Carriere  Gardenia angusta (L.) Merr.
科属Family & Genus):茜草科(Rubiaceae)栀子属
形态特征Description):灌木,高0.3-3米;嫩枝常被短毛,枝圆柱形,灰色。叶对生,革质,稀为纸质,少为3枚轮生,叶形多样,通常为长圆状披针形、倒卵状长圆形、倒卵形或椭圆形,长3-25厘米,宽1.5-8厘米,顶端渐尖、骤然长渐尖或短尖而钝,基部楔形或短尖,两面常无毛,上面亮绿,下面色较暗;侧脉8-15对,在下面凸起,在上面平;叶柄长0.2-1厘米;托叶膜质。花芳香,通常单朵生于枝顶,花梗长3-5毫米;萼管倒圆锥形或卵形,长8-25毫米,有纵棱,萼檐管形,膨大,顶部5-8裂,通常6裂,裂片披针形或线状披针形,长10-30毫米,宽1-4毫米,结果时增长,宿存;花冠白色或乳黄色,高脚碟状,喉部有疏柔毛,冠管狭圆筒形,长3-5厘米,宽4-6毫米,顶部5至8裂,通常6裂,裂片广展,倒卵形或倒卵状长圆形,长1.5-4厘米,宽0.6-2.8厘米;花丝极短,花药线形,长1.5-2.2厘米,伸出;花柱粗厚,长约4.5厘米,柱头纺锤形,伸出,长1-1.5厘米,宽3-7毫米,子房直径约3毫米,黄色,平滑。果卵形、近球形、椭圆形或长圆形,黄色或橙红色,长1.5-7厘米,直径1.2-2厘米,有翅状纵棱5-9条,顶部的宿存萼片长达4厘米,宽达6毫米;种子多数,扁,近圆形而稍有棱角,长约3.5毫米,宽约3毫米。花期3-7月,果期5月至翌年2月。
分布(Distribution):产山东、湖北、湖南、华东、华南、西南,生于海拔10-1500米处的旷野、丘陵、山谷、山坡、溪边的灌丛或林中。日本、朝鲜、东南亚、太平洋岛屿和美洲北部也有。
用途(Use):花大而美丽、芳香,广植于庭园供观赏。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 142, 143   
Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis, Philos. Trans. 51: 935. 1761.
栀子 zhi zi| Rubiaceae  | Gardenia
Shrubs, 0.3-3 m tall; branches terete to flattened, with internodes developed to shortened, glabrescent or usually densely puberulent to pilosulous, becoming gray to grayish white, with buds resinous and distalmost internodes often covered with resin. Leaves opposite or rarely ternate, subsessile to petiolate; petiole to 0.5(-1) cm, densely puberulent or shortly pilosulous to glabrous; blade drying thinly leathery to stiffly papery, oblong-lanceolate, obovate-oblong, obovate, oblanceolate, or elliptic, 3-25 × 1.5-8 cm, adaxially shiny and glabrous or sometimes puberulent on principal veins, abaxially puberulent or pilosulous to glabrous, base cuneate to acute, apex acute to acuminate or obtuse then abruptly long acuminate; secondary veins 8-15 pairs, in abaxial axils often with pilosulous domatia; stipules calyptrate, cylindrical, 4-13 mm, splitting for ca. 3/4 their length, densely puberulent to glabrous. Flower solitary, terminal; peduncle 1-10 mm, puberulent or pilosulous to glabrous. Calyx puberulent or pilosulous to glabrous; ovary portion obconic or obovoid, 5-8 mm, with (5 or)6(-8) weak to developed longitudinal ridges; limb with basal tubular portion 3-5 mm; lobes (5 or)6(-8), lanceolate or linear-lanceolate to spatulate, 10-30 × 1-4 mm, often strongly keeled, acute. Corolla white to pale yellow, simple or in cultivation sometimes doubled, outside glabrous; tube 30-50 × 4-6 mm, cylindrical, in throat pilose; lobes (5 or)6(-8) or numerous when doubled, obovate or obovate-oblong, 15-40 × 6-28 mm, obtuse to rounded. Fruiting peduncles apparently not much elongating. Berry yellow or orange-yellow, ovoid, subglobose, or ellipsoid, 1.5-7 × 1.2-2 cm, with 5-9 longitudinal ridges, with persistent calyx lobes to 40 × 6 mm; seeds suborbicular, weakly angled, ca. 3.5 × 3 mm. Fl. Mar-Jul, fr. May-Feb.
Thickets and forests at streamsides, on mountain slopes or hills, or in valleys or fields; near sea level to 1500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; cultivated in Gansu, Hebei, Shanxi [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Japan, N Korea, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam; cultivated in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America, and Pacific islands].
This is one of the most commonly collected species of Rubiaceae in China. It is quite variable morphologically especially in leaf size, calyx lobe size, and corolla size. Several varieties have been recognized for Chinese plants (e.g., Qiu & Zhong, Fl. Zhejiang 6: 105. 1986) but are not clearly separated or widely accepted outside this region. The varieties recognized by W. C. Chen (in FRPS 71(1): 332-335. 1999) are outlined below for reference.
 






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