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黑刺李 Prunus spinosa

时间:2013-11-06 14:10来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 黑刺李 学名( Scientific Name ): Prunus spinosa Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 刺李 异名( Synonym ): Prunus domestica var. spinosa (L.) Kuntze Prunus spinosa var. typ
中文名(Chinese Name):黑刺李
学名(Scientific Name):Prunus spinosa Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):刺李
异名(Synonym):Prunus domestica var. spinosa (L.) Kuntze  Prunus spinosa var. typica Schneid.  Druparia spinosa Clairv.  Prunus acacia Crantz ex Poir.  Prunus acacia-germanica Crantz
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)李属
形态特征(Description):灌木,极少乔木,高4-8米;树皮深灰褐色,微开展;多分枝,多刺;老枝粗壮,红褐色,无毛;小枝红褐色,密被短柔毛;冬芽卵圆形,先端圆钝,紫红色,有数枚覆瓦状排列鳞片,鳞片外面有短柔毛。叶片长圆倒卵形或椭圆状卵形,稀长圆形,长2-4厘米,宽8-18毫米,先端急尖或圆钝,基部近圆形,或宽楔形,边缘有细钝锯齿,有时具重锯齿,上面暗绿色,粗糙,有稀疏贴生短柔毛,下面黄绿色,侧脉4-5(-8)对,被柔毛,逐渐脱落;叶柄长5-7毫米,被柔毛,无腺体;托叶膜质,披针形,先端渐尖,早落。花单生,先于叶开放;花梗长6-8(15)毫米,直立,无毛或微被柔毛;花直径1-1.5厘米;萼筒钟状,与萼片近等长;萼片三角状卵形,先端急尖,边缘有细齿,萼筒和萼片外面无毛,内面近无毛;花瓣白色,长圆形,先端圆钝,基部楔形,有带浅紫色脉纹,着生在萼筒周围;雄蕊20-25,排成紧密不规则2轮,着生在花盘边缘,花盘圆盘形,雄蕊与花瓣近等长;雌蕊1,心皮无毛,柱头头状,花柱比雄蕊稍长或近等长。核果球形、广椭圆形或圆锥形,先端急尖,直径1-1.5厘米,黑色,具浅蓝色果粉,果肉绿色;核淡褐色,卵形或广椭圆形,稍扁平,先端渐尖,具起伏不平皱纹。花期4月,果期8月。2n=32。
分布(Distribution):原产欧洲、北非和西亚。我国引种栽培。多生于海拔800-1200米森林草原地带、林中旷地、林缘和河谷旁。
用途(Use):本种耐寒性强,可与普通李和欧洲李杂交,改良品质,又可作灌木型桃、李的砧木或作防护林。果实可供制干果、果酱、果汁及果酒。叶可代茶。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 402     
Prunus spinosa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 475. 1753.
黑刺李 hei ci li| Rosaceae  | Prunus
Prunus domestica Linnaeus var. spinosa (Linnaeus) Kuntze.
Shrubs, rarely trees, 4–8 m tall. Branches reddish brown, robust, glabrous, spiny; branchlets reddish brown, densely pubescent. Winter buds purplish red, pubescent. Stipules lanceolate, margin glandular, apex acuminate. Petiole 5–7 mm, pubescent, without nectaries; leaf blade oblong-obovate, elliptic-ovate, or rarely oblong, 2–4 × 0.8–1.8 cm, abaxially yellowish green and pubescent, adaxially dark green and sparsely appressed pubescent, glabrescent, base subrounded to broadly cuneate, margin crenate or sometimes doubly crenate, apex acute to obtuse; secondary veins 4 or 5(–8) on either side of midvein. Flowers solitary, opening before leaves, 1–1.5 cm in diam. Pedicel 6–8(–15) mm, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Hypanthium outside glabrous. Sepals triangular-ovate, outside glabrous, margin serrulate, apex acute. Petals white with pale purple veins, oblong, base cuneate, apex obtuse. Stamens 20–25. Ovary glabrous. Stigma capitate. Drupe black, globose, broadly ellipsoid, or conical, 1–1.5 cm in diam., glabrous, glaucous; mesocarp green; endocarp brown, ovoid to ellipsoid, ± flattened, rugose. Fl. Apr, fr. Aug.
Cultivated throughout China [native to N Africa, SW Asia, and Europe].
This species is cultivated for its edible fruit and as grafting stock for other species of Prunoideae.
 



 
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