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扁核木 Prinsepia utilis

时间:2013-11-06 14:03来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 扁核木 学名( Scientific Name ): Prinsepia utilis Royle 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 枪刺果 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 蔷薇科(Rosaceae)扁核木属 形态特征
中文名(Chinese Name):扁核木
学名(Scientific Name):Prinsepia utilis Royle
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):枪刺果
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)扁核木属
形态特征(Description):灌木,高1-5米;老枝粗壮,灰绿色,小枝圆柱形,绿色或带灰绿色,有棱条,被褐色短柔毛或近于无毛;枝刺长可达3.5厘米,刺上生叶,近无毛;冬芽小,卵圆形或长圆形,近无毛。叶片长圆形或卵状披针形,长3.5-9厘米,宽1.5-3厘米,先端急尖或渐尖,基部宽楔形或近圆形,全缘或有浅锯齿,两面均无毛,上面中脉下陷,下面中脉和侧脉突起;叶柄长约5毫米,无毛。花多数成总状花序,长3-6厘米,生于叶腋或生于枝刺顶端;花梗长4-8毫米,总花梗和花梗有褐色短柔毛,逐渐脱落;小苞片披针形,被褐色柔毛,脱落;花直径约1厘米;萼筒杯状,外面被褐色短柔毛,萼片半圆形或宽卵形,边缘有齿,比萼筒稍长,幼时内外两面有褐色柔毛,边缘较密,以后脱落;花瓣白色,宽倒卵形,先端啮蚀状,基部有短爪;雄蕊多数,以2-3轮着生在花盘上,花盘圆盘状,紫红色;心皮1,无毛,花柱短,侧生,柱头头状。核果长圆形或倒卵长圆形,长1-1.5厘米,宽约8毫米,紫褐色或黑紫色,平滑无毛,被白粉;果梗长8-10毫米,无毛;萼片宿存;核平滑,紫红色。花期4-5月,果熟期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产云南、贵州、四川、西藏,生于海拔1000-2560米山坡、荒地、山谷或路旁等处。巴基斯坦、尼泊尔、不丹和印度北部也有分布。
用途(Use):种子富含油脂,一般出油率30%左右,油呈暗棕黄色,澄清透明,凝固后白色如猪油。油可供食用、制皂、点灯用。嫩尖可当蔬菜食用,俗名青刺尖。在云南,茎、叶、果、根还用于治疗痈疽毒疮、风火牙痛、蛇咬伤、骨折、枪伤等。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 390     
Prinsepia utilis Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 206. 1835.
扁核木 bian he mu| Rosaceae  | Prinsepia
Shrubs 1–5 m tall. Branches grayish green, robust; branchlets green to grayish green, angled, brown pubescent to subglabrous; spines to 3.5 cm, subglabrous, usually leafy. Winter buds purplish red, ovoid to oblong, subglabrous. Stipules not seen. Petiole ca. 5 mm, glabrous; leaf blade oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 3.5–9 × 1.5–3 cm, base broadly cuneate to subrounded, margin serrulate, apex acute to acuminate. Racemes axillary or on short branchlets, 3–6 cm, many-flowered; peduncle brown pubescent, soon glabrescent; bracts and bracteoles lanceolate, brown pubescent, glabrescent. Flowers ca. 1 cm in diam. Pedicel 4–8 mm, to 1 cm in fruit, brown pubescent, soon glabrescent. Hypanthium cup-shaped, outside brown pubescent. Sepals semiorbicular to broadly ovate, outside brown pubescent when young and densely so on margin. Petals white, broadly obovate, base shortly clawed, margin apically erose. Stamens in 2 or 3 whorls. Ovary glabrous. Style short. Drupe purplish brown to blackish purple, oblong to obovoid-oblong, ca. 8 mm in diam. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Aug–Sep.
Slopes, wastelands, valleys, along trails; 1000--2600 m. Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, N India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim].
 




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