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见血封喉Antiaris toxicaria

时间:2013-10-16 21:28来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):见血封喉 学名( Scientific Name ): Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 箭毒木 异名( Synonym ): Antiaris dubia Span. ex Hook. Antiaris innoxia Blume Anti
中文名(Chinese Name):见血封喉
学名(Scientific Name):Antiaris toxicaria Lesch.  
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):箭毒木
异名(Synonym): Antiaris dubia Span. ex Hook.  Antiaris innoxia Blume  Antiaris rufa Miq.  Antiaris saccidora Dalzell  Antiaris zeylanica Seem.  Cestrum toxicarium J.F.Gmel.  Ficus challa Schweinf.  Ipo saccidora (Dalzell) A.Lyons  Ipo toxicaria Pers.  Lepurandra saccidora Nimmo  Toxicaria macassariensis Aepnel. ex Steud.
科属Family & Genus):桑科(Moraceae)见血封喉属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高25-40米,胸径30-40厘米,大树偶见有板根;树皮灰色,略粗糙;小 枝幼时被棕色柔毛,干后有绉纹。叶椭圆形至倒卵形,幼时被浓密的长粗毛,达缘具锯 齿,成长之叶长椭圆形,长7-19厘米,宽3-6厘米,先端渐尖,基部圆形至浅心形, 两侧不对称,表面深绿色,疏生长粗毛,背面浅绿色,密被长粗毛,沿中脉更密,干后 变为茶褐色,侧脉10-13对;叶柄短,长约5-8毫米,被长粗毛;托叶披针形,早落。 雄花序托盘状,宽约1.5厘米,围以舟状三角形的苞片,苞片顶部内卷,外面被毛;雄 花花被裂片4,稀为3,雄蕊与裂片同数而对生,花药椭圆形,散生紫色斑点,花丝极短; 雌花单生,藏于梨形花托内,为多数苞片包围,无花被,子房1室,胚珠自室顶悬垂,花 柱2裂,柱头钻形,被毛。核果梨形,具宿存苞片,成熟的核果,直径2厘米,鲜红至 紫红色;种子无胚乳,外种皮坚硬,子叶肉质,胚根小。花期3-4月,果期5-6月。
分布(Distribution):产广东、海南、广西、云南,多生于海拔1500米以下雨林中。斯里兰卡、印度、缅甸、泰国、中南半岛、马来西亚、印度尼西亚也有。
用途(Use):本种树液有剧毒,人畜中毒则死亡,树液尚可以制毒箭猎兽用;茎皮纤维可作绳索。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 37
Antiaris toxicaria Leschenault, Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 16: 478. 1810.
见血封喉 jian xue feng hou Moraceae  | Antiaris
Trees 25-40 m tall, d.b.h. 30-40 cm, occasionally with buttresses when large. Bark gray, coarse. Branchlets brown pubescent when young, furrowed when dry. Stipules lanceolate, caducous. Petiole 5-8 mm, with long thick hairs; leaf blade elliptic to obovate but narrowly elliptic on mature plants, 7-19 × 3-6 cm, abaxially pale green but brown when dry and densely covered with long thick hairs but more densely so along main veins, adaxially dark green and sparsely covered with long thick hairs, base rounded to ± cordate and asymmetric, margin serrate, apex acuminate; secondary veins 10-13 on each side of midvein, apically inflexed. Male inflorescences ca. 1.5 cm wide; involucral bracts triangular, boatlike, outside pubescent. Female inflorescences pear-shaped, 1-flowered, covered by numerous bracts. Male flowers: filament very short; anthers ellipsoid, with purple spots. Female flowers: without sepals; style 2-branched, subuliform, pubescent. Drupes bright red to purple red, pear-shaped, ca. 2 cm in diam. when mature. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. May-Jun.
Rain forests; below 1500 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, S Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
There are several recognized subspecies, but only subsp. toxicaria occurs in China.
The latex contains varying amounts of cardiac glycosides and can be very poisonous. The bark fiber is used for cordage.




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