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苦参Sophora flavescens

时间:2018-08-14 08:06来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):苦参 学名( Scientific Name ): Sophora flavescens Aiton 英文名( English Common Name ): shrubby sophora 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 野槐 异名( Synonym ): Sophora angustifolia Siebold et Zucc. Sophora te
中文名(Chinese Name):苦参
学名(Scientific Name):Sophora flavescens Aiton
英文名(English Common Name):shrubby sophora
别名(Chinese Common Name):野槐
异名(Synonym):Sophora angustifolia Siebold et Zucc.  Sophora tetragonocarpa Hayata  Sophora flavescens f. angustifolia (Siebold et Zucc.) Yakovlev  Sophora flavescens var. angustifolia (Siebold et Zucc.) Kitag.  Sophora flavescens var. stenophylla Hayata  Sophora macrosperma Sm. ex DC.  Sophora flavescens subsp. angustifolia (Siebold & Zucc.)Yakovlev  Sophora angustifolia var. stenophylla Makino & Nemoto
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科槐属
形态特征(Description):草本或亚灌木,稀呈灌木状,通常高1米左右,稀达2米。茎具纹棱,幼时疏被柔毛,后无毛。羽状复叶长达25厘米;托叶披针状线形,渐尖,长约6-8毫米;小叶6-12对,互生或近对生,纸质,形状多变,椭圆形、卵形、披针形至披针状线形,长3-4 (-6)厘米,宽(0.5-)1.2-2厘米,先端钝或急尖,基部宽楔开或浅心形,上面无毛,下面疏被灰白色短柔毛或近无毛。中脉下面隆起。总状花序顶生,长15-25厘米;花多数,疏或稍密;花梗纤细,长约7毫米;苞片线形,长约2.5毫米;花萼钟状,明显歪斜,具不明显波状齿,完全发育后近截平,长约5毫米,宽约6毫米,疏被短柔毛;花冠比花萼长1倍,白色或淡黄白色,旗瓣倒卵状匙形,长14-15毫米,宽6-7毫米,先端圆形或微缺,基部渐狭成柄,柄宽3毫米,翼瓣单侧生,强烈皱褶几达瓣片的顶部,柄与瓣片近等长,长约13毫米,龙骨瓣与翼瓣相似,稍宽,宽约4毫米,雄蕊10,分离或近基部稍连合;子房近无柄,被淡黄白色柔毛,花柱稍弯曲,胚珠多数。荚果长5-10厘米,种子间稍缢缩,呈不明显串珠状,稍四棱形,疏被短柔毛或近无毛,成熟后开裂成4瓣,有种子1-5粒;种子长卵形,稍压扁,深红褐色或紫褐色。花期6-8月,果期7-10。
分布(Distribution):产我国南北各省区。生于海拔1500米以下山坡、沙地草坡灌木林中或田野附近。印度、日本、朝鲜、俄罗斯也有。
用途(Use):根含苦参碱(matrine)和金雀花碱(cytisine)等,入药有清热利湿,抗菌消炎,健胃驱虫之效,常用作治疗皮肤瘙痒,神经衰弱,消化不良及便秘等症;种子可作农药;茎皮纤维可织麻袋等。
引自植物志英文版:
FOC Vol. 10 Page 86, 90      Login
Sophora flavescens Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2: 43. 1789.
苦参 ku shen| Fabaceae  | Sophora
Herbs or subshrubs, 1-2 m. Stem striped, pilose when young. Leaves 20-25(-30) cm; stipules lanceolate, 6-8 mm, acuminate; leaflets 13-25, elliptic, ovate, or lanceolate, 3-4(-6) × (0.5-)1.2-2 cm, papery, pilose or glabrescent abaxially, gla­brous adaxially, base cuneate or slightly cordate, apex obtuse or acute. Racemes terminal, 15-25 cm. Flowers many, widely spaced; pedicel slender, ca. 7 mm; bracts linear, ca. 2.5 mm. Ca­lyx campanulate, oblique; teeth not obvious, sparsely pubes­cent. Corolla white, pale yellow, purple-red, or red; standard obovate-spatulate, 14-15 × 6-7 mm, apex rounded or retuse, narrowing to a claw; wings rugose, claw equal to blade, ca. 13 mm; keel similar to wings, slightly broader, ca. 4 mm wide. Stamens 10, free or slightly fused at base. Ovary nearly ses­sile, hairy; ovules many; style slightly curved. Legumes 5-10 cm, slightly constricted between seeds, slightly quadrangular, sparsely or densely pubescent or glabrescent, 4-valvate. Seeds 1-5, red-brown or purple-brown, long ovoid, slightly com­pressed. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Jul-Oct.
Scrub, hill slopes, farm fields; below 1500 m. All provinces [India, Japan, Korea, Russia].
 
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