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木蓝Indigofera tinctoria

时间:2018-08-14 08:15来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):木蓝 学名( Scientific Name ): Indigofera tinctoria L. 英文名( English Common Name ): true indigo 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 蓝靛、靛 异名( Synonym ): Indigofera sumatrana Gaertn. Indigofera tinctoria
中文名(Chinese Name):木蓝
学名(Scientific Name):Indigofera tinctoria L.
英文名(English Common Name):true indigo
别名(Chinese Common Name):蓝靛、靛
异名(Synonym):Indigofera sumatrana Gaertn.  Indigofera tinctoria var. macrocarpa DC.  Anila tinctoria (L.) Kuntze  Anila tinctoria var. normalis Kuntze
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae木蓝属
形态特征(Description):直立亚灌木,高0.5-1米;分枝少。幼枝有棱,扭曲,被白色丁字毛。羽状复叶长2.5-11厘米;叶柄长1.3-2.5厘米,叶轴上面扁平,有浅槽,被丁字毛,托叶钻形,长约2毫米;小叶4-6对,对生,倒卵状长圆形或倒卵形,长1.5-3厘米;宽0.5-1.5厘米,先端圆钝或微凹,基部阔楔形或圆形,两面被丁字毛或上面近无毛,中脉上面凹入,侧脉不明显;小叶柄长约2毫米;小托叶钻形。总状花序长2.5-5 (-9)厘米,花疏生,近无总花梗;苞片钻形,长1-1.5毫米;花梗长4-5毫米;花萼钟状,长约1.5毫米,萼齿三角形,与萼筒近等长,外面有丁字毛;花冠伸出萼外,红色,旗瓣阔倒卵形,长4-5毫米,外面被毛,瓣柄短,翼瓣长约4毫米,龙骨瓣与旗瓣等长;花药心形;子房无毛。荚果线形,长2.5-3厘米,种子间有缢缩,外形似串珠状,有毛或无毛,有种子5-10粒,内果皮具紫色斑点;果梗下弯。种子近方形,长约1.5毫米。花期几乎全年,果期10月。
分布(Distribution):广泛分布亚洲、非洲热带地区,我国引种栽培。
用途(Use):叶供提取蓝靛染料,又入药,能凉血解毒、泻火散郁;根及茎叶外敷,可治肿毒。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 140, 150, 151
Indigofera tinctoria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 751. 1753.
木蓝 mu lan| Fabaceae  | Indigofera
Shrublets, erect, 50-100 cm tall. Young branches with ap­pressed white medifixed symmetrically 2-branched trichomes. Stipules narrowly triangular, ca. 2 mm. Leaves 2.5-11 cm, 9-13-foliolate; petiole and rachis adaxially grooved, with ap­pressed medifixed trichomes; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm; stipels mi­nute; petiolules ca. 2 mm; leaflet blades opposite, obovate-oblong to obovate, 1.5-3 × 0.5-1.5 cm, both surfaces with appressed medifixed trichomes, adaxially sometimes glabrous, midvein adaxially impressed, secondary veins not visible, base broadly cuneate to rounded, apex rounded to emarginate. Ra­cemes 2.5-5(-9) cm, laxly flowered; peduncle absent; bracts bristlelike, 1-1.5 mm. Pedicel 4-5 mm, reflexed in fruit. Calyx ca. 1.5 mm, with appressed medifixed trichomes; teeth triangu­lar, as long as tube. Corolla red; standard broadly obovate, 4-5 mm, outside with brown trichomes; wings ca. 4 mm; keel as long as wings. Stamens 4-5 mm; anthers cordate. Ovary gla­brous. Legume linear, deflexed and straight to semicircular but never falcate, 2.5-3 cm, hairy or glabrous; endocarp purplish red blotched. Seeds 5-12 per legume, cubic, ca. 1.5 mm. Fl. year-round, fr. Oct. 2n = 16.
Cultivated in SW Anhui, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan, and Yunnan [widely distributed in tropical Asia and Africa].
Indigofera tinctoria is widely used as the source of the dye indigo.


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