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鱼鳔槐Colutea arborescens

时间:2018-08-14 08:19来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):鱼鳔槐 学名( Scientific Name ): Colutea arborescens L. 英文名( English Common Name ): bladder senna 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 膀胱豆 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 豆科(Leguminosae)鱼鳔
中文名(Chinese Name):鱼鳔槐
学名(Scientific Name):Colutea arborescens L.
 英文名(English Common Name):bladder senna
别名(Chinese Common Name):膀胱豆
异名(Synonym): 
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae鱼鳔槐属
形态特征(Description):落叶灌木,高1-4米,小枝幼时被细小白色伏毛;羽状复叶有7-13片小叶,长6-15厘米,叶轴上面具沟槽;托叶三角形、披针状三角形至披针状镰形,长2-3毫米,被白色柔毛。小叶长圆形至倒卵形,长1-3厘米,宽6-15毫米,先端微凹或圆钝,具小尖头,上面绿色,无毛,下面灰绿色,疏生短伏毛,薄纸质,具清楚而分离的脉序。总状花序长达5-6厘米,生6-8花;苞片卵状披针形,长2毫米,先端钝尖,与花梗同被黑褐色或混生白色疏短伏毛;花梗长约1厘米;花萼长约5毫米,萼齿三角形,为萼筒长的1/4-1/3,先端锐尖,外面疏被黑褐色及白色伏毛,萼筒内侧上缘密被灰白色至褐色毛;花冠鲜黄色,旗瓣宽略大于长,长15-17毫米,先端微凹,基部圆,具长2-4毫米的瓣柄,胼胝体新月形,稍隆起,翼瓣长11-14毫米,近基部最宽,宽达4毫米,上部常渐狭,先端钝尖,基部一侧具弯曲的耳,与瓣柄等宽,瓣柄长4毫米,龙骨瓣瓣片半圆形至三角状半圆形,先端宽达11毫米,多少凹入,基部宽5毫米,瓣柄长8-9毫米,耳近三角状半圆形;子房密被短柔毛,花柱弯曲,几与子房成直角,先端内卷,近轴面(内侧)被白色纵列髯毛。荚果长卵形,长6-8厘米,宽2-3厘米,两端尖,带绿色或近基部稍带红色,无毛至近无毛;种子扁,近黑色至绿褐色。花期5-7月,果期7-10月。
分布(Distribution):辽宁、北京、山东、陕西、江苏有零星引种栽培供观赏。原产欧洲。
用途(Use):
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 504
Colutea arborescens Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 723. 1753.
鱼鳔槐 yu biao huai | Fabaceae  | Colutea
Shrubs, deciduous, 1-4 m tall. Young branches with fine white hairs. Leaves pinnate, 7-13-foliolate, 6-15 cm, with groove on rachis; stipules triangular or lanceolate-triangular to lanceolate-falcate, 2-3 mm; leaflets abaxially gray-green, adax­ially green, oblong to obovate, 1-3 cm × 6-15 mm, thinly leathery, abaxially sparsely shortly hairy, adaxially glabrous, venation clear and free, apex retuse or obtuse, mucronate. Ra­cemes 5-6 cm, 6-8-flowered; bract ovate-lanceolate, ca. 2 mm, blackish brown or intermixed white scattered shortly sericeous, apex obtuse. Pedicel ca. 1 cm. Calyx ca. 5 mm; tube inside upper part densely pallid to brown hairy; teeth triangular, 1/4-1/3 as long as calyx tube, outside sparsely blackish brown and white sericeous, apex argute. Corolla yellow; standard slightly wider than long, 15-17 mm, base rounded, apex retuse, stalk 2-4 mm, calluses crescent-shaped, slightly convex; wings 11-14 mm, widest near base, to 4 mm wide, upper part often attenu­ate, curved auriculate at one lateral base, equal to stalk, ca. 4 mm, apex obtuse; keel suborbicular to triangular-suborbicular, ± concave, ca. 5 mm wide and trian­gular-suborbicular auricu­late at base, to 11 mm wide at apex, auricle intersecting stalk at an acute angle, stalk 8-9 mm. Ovary densely pubescent; style curved, at slight right angle with ovary, inrolled at apex, adaxially longitudinally white barbate. Legume greenish or slightly red at base, narrowly ovate, 6-8 × 2-3 cm, glabrous to subglabrate, both ends acute. Seeds complanate, blackish to green-brown. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Jul-Oct.
Cultivated for ornament. Beijing, Jiangsu (Nanjing), Liaoning (Dalian), Shaanxi (Wugong), Shandong (Qingdao) [native to C and S Europe].


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