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云南杜鹃Rhododendron yunnanense

时间:2013-09-09 13:19来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 云南杜鹃 学名( Scientific Name ): Rhododendron yunnanense Franch. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Rhododendron bodinieri Franch. Rhododendron chartophyllum
中文名(Chinese Name):云南杜鹃
学名(Scientific Name):Rhododendron yunnanense Franch.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Rhododendron bodinieri Franch.  Rhododendron chartophyllum Franch.  Rhododendron chartophyllum f. praecox Diels  Rhododendron shaanxiense Fang et Z. J. Zhao  Rhododendron aechmophyllum Balf. f. et Forrest  Rhododendron hormophorum Balf. f. et Forrest  Rhododendron suberosum Balf. f. et Forrest
科属(Family & Genus):杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)杜鹃属
形态特征(Description):落叶、半落叶或常绿灌木,偶成小乔木,高1-2(-4)米。幼枝疏生鳞片,无毛或有微柔毛,老枝光滑。叶通常向下倾斜着生,叶片长圆形、披针形,长圆状披针形或倒卵形,长2.5-7厘米,宽0.8-3厘米,先端渐尖或锐尖,有短尖头,基部渐狭成楔形,上面无鳞片或疏生鳞片,无毛或沿中脉被微柔毛,偶或叶面全有微柔毛并疏生刚毛,下面绿或灰绿色,网脉纤细而清晰,疏生鳞片,鳞片中等大小,相距为其直径的2-6倍,边缘无或疏生刚毛;叶柄长3-7毫米,疏生鳞片,被短柔毛或有时疏生刚毛。花序顶生或同时枝顶腋生,3-6花,伞形着生或成短总状;花序轴长2-3毫米;花梗长0.5-2(-3)厘米,疏生鳞片或无鳞片;花萼环状或5裂,裂片长0.5-1毫米,疏生鳞片或无鳞片,无缘毛或疏生缘毛;花冠宽漏斗状,略呈两侧对称,长1.8-3.5厘米,白色、淡红色或淡紫色,内面有红、褐红、黄或黄绿色斑点,外面无鳞片或疏生鳞片;雄蕊不等长,长雄蕊伸出花冠外,花丝下部或多或少被短柔毛;子房5室,密被鳞片,花柱伸出花冠外,洁净。蒴果长圆形,长0.6-2厘米。花期4-6月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西、四川、贵州、云南、西藏。生于海拔1600-4 000米山坡杂木林、灌丛、松林、松栎林、云杉或冷杉林缘。缅甸也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版 FOC Vol. 14 
Rhododendron yunnanense Franchet, Bull. Soc. Bot. France. 33: 232. 1886.
云南杜鹃 yun nan du juan  | Apiaceae  | Rhododendron
Rhododendron aechmophyllum I. B. Balfour & Forrest; R. chartophyllum Franchet; R. chartophyllum f. praecox Diels; R. hormophorum I. B. Balfour & Forrest; R. shaanxiense W. P. Fang & Z. J. Zhao; R. suberosum I. B. Balfour & Forrest.
Shrubs, rarely small trees, deciduous, semievergreen or evergreen, 1–2(–4) m tall; old branches glabrous; young shoots sparsely scaly, otherwise glabrous or pubescent. Petiole 3–7 mm, sparsely scaly, pubescent or sometimes hispid; leaf blade oblong, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or obovate, 2.5–7 × 0.8–3 cm; base narrow to cuneate; apex acuminate or acute, apiculate; abaxial surface green or gray green, scales 2–6 × their own diameter unequal; adaxial surface not or sparsely scaly, sometimes pubescent along midrib. Inflorescence terminal or subterminal, shortly racemose or umbellate, 3–6-flowered; rachis 2–3 mm. Pedicel 0.5–2(–3) cm, not or sparsely scaly; calyx rimlike or 5-lobed, 0.5–1 mm, scaly or not; corolla broadly funnelform-campanulate, white, pale red or pale purplish, inside with red, brownish red, yellow or yellowish green spots, 1.8–3.5 cm, outer surface sparsely scaly or not; stamens unequal, long ones longer than corolla; filaments ± pubescent below; ovary 5-locular, densely scaly; style longer than corolla, glabrous. Capsule cylindric, 6–20 mm. Fl. Apr–Jun.
Mixed forests on slopes, Abies-Picea or Pinus-Quercus forest margins, thickets; (1600–)2200–3600(–4000) m. W Guizhou, S Shaanxi, W Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Myanmar].




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