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牛角瓜Calotropis gigantea

时间:2013-07-16 14:46来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):牛角瓜 学名( Scientific Name ): Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Dry. ex Ait. f. 英文名( English Common Name ): giant milkweed 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 断肠草、羊浸树 异名( Synonym ): Periploca cochinch









中文名(Chinese Name):牛角瓜
学名(Scientific Name):Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Dry. ex Ait. f.
英文名(English Common Name):giant milkweed
别名(Chinese Common Name):断肠草、羊浸树
异名(Synonym):Periploca cochinchinensis Lour.;Streptocaulon cochinchinense (Lour.) G. Don;Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.;Madorius giganteus (L.) Kuntze
科属(Family & Genus):萝藦科(Asclepiadaceae)牛角瓜属
形态特征(Description):直立灌木,高达3米,全株具乳汁;茎黄白色,枝粗壮,幼枝部分被灰白色绒毛。叶倒卵状长圆形或椭圆状长圆形,长8-20厘米,宽3.5-9.5厘米,顶端急尖,基部心形;两面被灰白色绒毛,老渐脱落;侧脉每边4-6条,疏离;叶柄极端,有时叶基部抱茎。聚伞花序伞形状,腋生和顶生;花序梗和花梗被灰白色绒毛,花梗长2-2.5厘米;花萼裂片卵圆形;花冠紫蓝色,辐状,直径3-4厘米,裂片卵圆形,长1.5厘米,宽1厘米,急尖;副花冠裂片比合蕊柱短,顶端内向,基部有距。蓇葖单生,膨胀,端部外弯,长7-9厘米,直径3厘米,被短柔毛;种子广卵形,长5毫米,宽3毫米,顶端具白色绢质种毛;种毛长2.5厘米。花果期几乎全年。
分布(Distribution):产云南、四川、广西及广东等省区,生于低海拔的向阳山坡、旷野地及海边,东南亚也有。
用途(Use):茎皮纤维可供造纸、制绳索及人造棉,织麻布、麻袋;种毛可作丝绒原料及填充物。茎叶的乳汁有毒,含多种强心甙,供药用,治皮肤病、痢疾、风湿、支气管炎;树皮可治癫癣。乳汁干燥后可用作树胶原料,还可制鞣料及黄色染料。全株可作绿肥。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 16 Page 203
Calotropis gigantea (Linnaeus) W. T. Aiton, Hortus Kew. ed. 2. 2: 78. 1811.
牛角瓜 niu jiao gua| Asclepiadaceae  | Calotropis
Asclepias gigantea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 214. 1753; Periploca cochinchinensis Loureiro; Streptocaulon cochinchinense (Loureiro) G. Don.
Shrubs 1-5 m tall. Petiole 1-4 mm; leaf blade obovate-oblong or oblong, 7-30 × 3-15 cm, base cordate, apex obtuse, cottony tomentose when young, frequently glabrescent and glaucous green; lateral veins 4-8 pairs. Cymes umbel-like, with fine woolly hairs; peduncle robust, 5-12 cm. Pedicel thick, 2-5 cm. Calyx almost flat, 1.2-1.5 cm in diam. Flower buds cylindric. Corolla usually purplish or lilac with paler greenish base, 2.5-3.5 cm in diam., fleshy, glabrous; lobes ovate, 1-1.5 × 0.6-1 cm, spreading or reflexed, margin revolute. Corona shorter than gynostegium. Follicles obliquely elliptic to oblong-lanceolate in outline, 5-10 × 2.5-4 cm, both ends incurved. Seeds broadly ovate, 5-7 × 3-4 mm; coma 2.5-4 cm. Fl. almost throughout the year. 2n = 22.
Woods of dry areas, stream banks; 0-1400 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; tropical Africa]
The bark is used as a medicine for the treatment of neurodermatitis and syphilis, and the leaves are used as a poultice. The juice is used in making a yellow dye and in tanning. A fine fiber is obtained from the stems.
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