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鸭嘴花Justicia adhatoda

时间:2013-07-15 16:28来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
鸭嘴花,Justicia adhatoda,野靛叶,鸭子花






中文名(Chinese Name):鸭嘴花
学名(Scientific NameJusticia adhatoda L.
英文名(English Common Name):Malabar nut
别名(Chinese Common Name):野靛叶、鸭子花
异名(Synonym):Adhatoda vasica Nees;Adhatoda zeylanica Medik.
科属(Family & Genus):爵床科(Acanthaceae)爵床属
形态特征(Description):大灌木,高达1-3米;枝圆柱状,灰色,有皮孔,嫩枝密被灰白色微柔毛。叶纸质,矩圆状披针形至披针形,或卵形或椭圆状卵形,长15-20厘米,宽4.5-7.5厘米,顶端渐尖,有时稍呈尾状,基部阔楔形,全缘,上面近无毛,背面被微柔毛;中脉在上面具槽,侧脉每边约12条;叶柄长1.5-2厘米。茎叶揉后有特殊臭气。穗状花序卵形或稍伸长;花梗长5-10厘米;苞片卵形或阔卵形,长1-3厘米,宽8-15毫米,被微柔毛;小苞片披针形,稍短于苞片,萼裂片5,矩圆状披针形,长约8毫米;花冠白色,有紫色条纹或粉红色,长2.5-3厘米,被柔毛,冠管卵形,长约6毫米;药室椭圆形,基部通常有球形附属物不明显。蒴果近木质,长约0.5厘米,上部具4粒种子,下部实心短柄状。
分布(Distribution):产广东、广西、海南(海口人民公园和檐州)、澳门、香港、云南等地栽培或逸为野生。上海栽培。分布于亚洲东南部。原产地不明,最早在印度发现。
用途(Use):药用,续筋接骨,祛风止痛,祛痰。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 19 
Justicia adhatoda Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 15. 1753.
鸭嘴花 ya zui hua  | Acanthaceae  | Justicia
Adhatoda vasica Nees.
Shrubs to 4 m tall. Branches thickened, ± 4-angled, lenticellate, pubescent when young but soon glabrescent. Petiole 0.8-3 cm, puberulent; leaf blade ovate to elliptic-ovate, 7-18 × 2-7 cm, abaxially puberulent, adaxially densely tomentose when young but glabrescent except tomentose along veins, secondary veins 9-12 on each side of midvein and meeting near margin, base broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex acuminate and sometimes slightly falcate. Spikes terminal or axillary, ovoid to broadly ovoid, 3-7 cm; peduncle 3-7 cm; bracts imbricate, ovate-oblong, 1-2 × 0.5-1.5 cm, puberulent, 3-7-veined, margin ciliate, apex acute; bracteoles linear-lanceolate, 1-1.4 × ca. 0.4 cm, puberulent, 3-5-veined, margin ciliate, apex acute. Calyx 5-lobed; lobes linear-oblong, ca. 10 × 3 mm, margin narrowly scarious and ciliate. Corolla white or pink with purplish or pinkish stripes outside, broadly tubular, 2.5-3 cm, outside pilose; tube basally cylindric and ca. 5 mm wide for ca. 5 mm and then slightly inflated and bent upward; upper lip ovate-oblong, ca. 1.8 cm, erect, shallowly 2-lobed; lower lip oblong-circular, spreading, 3-lobed, middle lobe subcircular and ca. 9 × 5 mm, lateral lobes ovate and ca. 8 × 4.5 mm. Stamens exserted; filaments ca. 1.5 cm, declinate, glabrous except basally sericeous; anther thecae ellipsoid, ca. 3.5 mm, equal, superposed, lower one spurred at base. Ovary pubescent especially at tip; style ca. 2.5 cm, recurved, basal part pubescent; stigma simple. Capsule obovoid, 2.5-4 × ca. 0.5 cm. Seeds circular in outline. Fl. Jan-Mar, fr. Jun-Jul. 2n = 34.
Roadsides, thickets. Naturalized or cultivated in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, and Yunnan [probably native to India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, but widely cultivated and naturalized in tropics, obscuring native distribution].
Justicia adhatoda is widely cultivated beyond its native range.
This species is used medicinally.
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