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假杜鹃Barleria cristata

时间:2013-07-15 16:25来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
假杜鹃,Barleria cristata,刺血红








中文名(Chinese Name):假杜鹃
学名(Scientific Name):Barleria cristata L.
英文名(English Common Name):crested Philippine violet
别名(Chinese Common Name):刺血红
异名(Synonym):Barleria cavaleriei H. Lév.;Barleria lacinlata Nees;Barleria napalensis Nees  Barleria dichotoma Roxb.;Barleria laciniata Nees;Barleria lactea Desf. ex Steud. ;Barleria napalensis var. microphylla Nees;Barleria nuda Nees;Barleria prinoides Nees;Barleria alba Lodd.;Barleria chegosa Wall.;Barleria indica L. ex T.Anderson;Barleria venulosa Nees;Lepidagathis laciniata Wall. ex Nees  
科属(Family & Genus):爵床科(Acanthaceae)假杜鹃属
形态特征(Description):小灌木,高达2米。茎圆柱状,被柔毛,有分枝。长枝叶柄长3-6毫米,叶片纸质,椭圆形、长椭圆形或卵形,长3-10厘米,宽1.3-4厘米,先端急尖,有时有渐尖头,基部楔形,下延,两面被长柔毛,脉上较密,全缘,侧脉4-5(7)对,长枝叶常早落;腋生短枝的叶小,具短柄,叶片椭圆形或卵形,长2-4厘米,宽1.5-2.3厘米,叶腋内通常着生2朵花。短枝有分枝,花在短枝上密集。花的苞片叶形,无柄,小苞片披针形或线形,长10-15毫米,宽约1.5毫米,先端渐尖,具锐尖头,3-5-7脉,主脉明显,边缘被贴伏或开展的糙伏毛,有时有小锯齿,齿端具尖刺。有时花退化而只有2枚不孕的小苞片;外2萼片卵形至披针形,长1.2-2厘米,前萼片较后萼片稍短,先端急尖具刺尖,基部圆,边缘有小点,齿端具刺尖,脉纹甚显著,内2萼片线形或披针形,长6-7毫米,1脉,有缘毛,花冠蓝紫色或白色,2唇形,通常长3.5-5厘米,有时可长达7.5毫米,花冠管圆筒状,喉部渐大,冠檐5裂,裂片近相等,长圆形;能育雄蕊4,2长2短,着生于喉基部,长雄蕊花药2室并生,短雄蕊花药顶端相连,下面叉开,不育雄蕊1,所有花丝均被疏柔毛,向下部较密;子房扁,长椭圆形,无毛,花盘杯状,包被子房下部,花柱线状无毛,柱头略膨大。蒴果长圆形,长1.2-1.8厘米,两端急尖,无毛。花期11-12月。
分布(Distribution):产台湾、福建、广东、海南、广西、四川、贵州、云南和西藏等省区。生于海拔700-1100米的山坡、路旁或疏林下阴处,也可生于干燥草坡或岩石中。中南半岛、印度和印度洋一些岛屿也有分布。
用途(Use):并栽培供观赏。药用全草,通筋活络,解毒消肿。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 19
Barleria cristata Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 636. 1753.
假杜鹃 jia du juan | Acanthaceae  | Barleria
 Barleria cristata
Credit: Harvard University Herbaria
Barleria cavaleriei H. Léveillé; B. ciliata Roxburgh; B. cristata var. mairei H. Léveillé; B. dichotoma Roxburgh; B. laciniata Nees; B. napalensis Nees.
Subshrubs to 2 m tall. Stems terete, branched, covered with soft trichomes. Petiole (0-)0.3-1 cm; leaf blade elliptic to oblong to ovate, 2-10 × 1-4 cm, both surfaces villous especially along veins, secondary veins 4-7 on each side of midvein, base cuneate and decurrent onto petiole, apex acute to sometimes acuminate. Inflorescences axillary short and dense cymes, shortly pedunculate; bracts absent; bracteoles variable, linear to linear-lanceolate, 2.4-6.5 × 0.5-1.5 cm, 3-7-veined, base cuneate, margin usually spiny but sometimes bristly pilose and becoming spinescent with age, apex acuminate. Outer calyx lobes ovate to narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 1.2-2.5 × 0.5-1.3 cm, pilose, reticulately veined, margin spiny, apex mucronate; inner calyx lobes linear to lanceolate, 6-12 mm, 1-veined, margin scarious. Corolla purplish blue, 4.5-6.5 cm, outside pilose; tube basally narrowly cylindric then gradually widened; lobes oblong-elliptic, ca. 1.5 cm, equal. Stamens 4, didynamous; filaments pilose especially toward base; staminode 1, filament sparsely pilose. Ovary oblong-ellipsoid, glabrous; style linear, ca. 2.5 cm, glabrous; stigma slightly inflated. Capsule 1.2-1.8 cm, glabrous, 4-seeded. Seeds subglobose to ovoid, 4-5 × ca. 4 mm. Fl. May, Aug-Dec, fr. May, Oct. 2n = 40.
Roadsides, slopes, along streams, in xeric vegetation; below 100-2600 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, ?Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
Barleria cristata is a medicinal and ornamental plant.
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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