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叉子圆柏Juniperus sabina

时间:2013-07-15 15:40来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
叉子圆柏,Juniperus sabina,沙地柏,双子柏






中文名(Chinese Name):叉子圆柏
学名(Scientific Name):Juniperus sabina L.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):沙地柏、双子柏
异名(Synonym):Sabina vulgaris Ant.  Juniperus sabina var. monosperma C. Y. Yang  Sabina officinalis Garcke  Juniperus foetida Spach  Juniperus foetida var. sabine (L.) Spach  Juniperus sabina var. vulgaris Endl.  Sabina vulgaris var. arborescens Antonie  Juniperus sabina var. tamariscifolia Aiton  Juniperus foetida var. multicaulis Spach  Juniperus kanitzii Csató  Sabina alpestris Jord.  Juniperus humilis Salisb.  Juniperus sabina var. cupressifolia Aiton  Juniperus lusitanica Mill.  Juniperus sabina var. lusitanica (Mill.) C. K. Schneid.  Juniperus sabina subsp. tamariscifolia (Aiton) A.E.Murray  Juniperus tamariscifolia K.Koch  Sabina cupressifolia Antoine ex K.Koch  Sabina tamariscifolia K.Koch 
科属Family & Genus):柏科(Cupressaceae)刺柏属(Juniperus
形态特征Description):匍匐灌木,高不及1米,稀灌木或小乔木;枝密,斜上伸展,枝皮灰褐色,裂成薄片脱落;一年生枝的分枝皆为圆柱形,径约1毫米。叶二型:刺叶常生于幼一树上,稀在壮龄树上与鳞叶并存,常交互对生或兼有三叶交叉轮生,排列较密,向上斜展,长3-7毫米,先端刺尖,上面凹,下面拱圆,中部有长椭圆形或条形腺体;鳞叶交互对生,排列紧密或稍疏,斜方形或菱状卵形,长1-2.5毫米,先端微钝或急尖,背面中部有明显的椭圆形或卵形腺体。雌雄异株,稀同株;雄球花椭圆形或矩圆形,长2-3毫米,雄蕊5-7对,各具2-4花药,药隔钝三角形;雌球花曲垂或初期直立而随后俯垂。球果生于向下弯曲的小枝顶端,熟前蓝绿色,熟时褐色至紫蓝色或黑色,多少有白粉,具1-4 (-5)粒种子,多为2-3粒,形状各式,多为倒三角状球形,长5-8毫米,径5-9毫米;种子常为卵圆形,微扁,长4-5毫米,顶端钝或微尖,有纵脊与树脂槽。
分布(Distribution):产于新疆天山至阿尔泰山、宁夏贺兰山、内蒙古、青海东北部、甘肃祁连山北坡及古浪、景泰、靖远等地以及陕西北部榆林。生于海拔1100-2800(青海可达3300)米地带的多石山坡,或生于针叶树或针叶树阔叶树混交林内,或生于砂丘上。欧洲南部至中亚也有分布。
用途(Use):耐旱性强,可作水土保持及固沙造林树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Juniperus sabina Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1039. 1753.
叉子圆柏 cha zi yuan bai | Cupressaceae  | Juniperus
Shrubs, rarely small trees, dioecious, rarely monoecious; bark grayish brown; branchlets densely arranged, ascending, slender, 0.8-1 mm in diam. Leaves both scalelike and needlelike; needlelike leaves usually present on young plants, rarely present on adult plants, decussate or in whorls of 3, closely appressed, 3-7 mm, concave adaxially, convex abaxially, apex sharply pointed; scalelike leaves decussate, rhombic or rhombic-ovate, 1-2.5 mm, abaxial gland central, prominent, elliptic. Pollen cones ellipsoid or oblong, 3-4 mm; microsporophylls 10-14, each with 2-4 pollen sacs. Seed cones light brownish green, brown, purplish blue, or black when ripe, often glaucous, usually irregularly globose, 5-8 × 5-9 mm, (1 or)2-seeded. Seeds ovoid, slightly flattened, 4-5 mm, ridged, with resin pits, apex blunt or slightly pointed.
Forests or thickets on rocky mountain slopes and sand dunes; 1000-3300 m. Gansu, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, NE Qinghai, N Shaanxi, N Sichuan, Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia (Far East, Siberia); SW Asia, Europe]
At least 12 varieties have been described in this very wide-ranging species; it must be noted that ± straight fertile branchlets are occasionally found on specimens from C Asia and Europe.
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