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百眼藤Morinda parvifolia

时间:2013-11-08 12:52来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):百眼藤 学名( Scientific Name ): Morinda parvifolia Bartl. ex DC. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 鸡眼藤、细叶巴戟天 异名( Synonym ): Morinda cumingiana Vidal Lucinaea cuming
中文名(Chinese Name):百眼藤
学名(Scientific Name):Morinda parvifolia Bartl. ex DC.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):鸡眼藤、细叶巴戟天
异名(Synonym):Morinda cumingiana Vidal  Lucinaea cumingiana Vidal
科属(Family & Genus):茜草科(Rubiaceae)巴戟天属
形态特征(Description):攀援、缠绕或平卧藤本;嫩枝密被短粗毛,老枝棕色或稍紫蓝色,具细棱。叶形多变,生旱阳裸地者叶为倒卵形,具大、小二型叶,生疏阴旱裸地者叶为线状倒披针形或近披针形,攀援于灌木者叶为倒卵状倒披针形、倒披针形、倒卵状长圆形,长2-5 (-7)厘米,宽0.3-3厘米,顶端急尖、渐尖或具小短尖,基部楔形,边全缘或具疏缘毛,上面初时被稍密粗毛,后变被疏粒状短粗毛(糙毛)或无毛,中脉通常被粒状短毛,下面初时被柔毛,后变无毛,中脉通常被短硬毛;侧脉在上面不明显,下面明显,每边3-4(-6)条,脉腋有毛;叶柄长3-8毫米,被短粗毛;托叶筒状,干膜质,长2-4毫米,顶端截平,每侧常具刚毛状伸出物1-2,花序(2-)3-9伞状排列于枝顶;花序梗长0.6-2.5厘米,被短细毛,基部常具钻形或线形总苞片1枚;头状花序近球形或稍呈圆锥状,罕呈柱状,直径5-8毫米,具花3-15(-17)朵;花4-5基数,无花梗;花萼下部各花彼此合生,上部环状,顶截平,常具1-3针状或波状齿,有时无齿,背面常具毛状或钻状苞片1枚;花冠白色,长6-7毫米,管部长约2毫米,直径2-3毫米,略呈4-5棱形,棱处具裂缝,顶部稍收狭,内面无毛,檐部4-5裂,裂片长圆形,顶部向外隆出和向内钩状弯折,内面中部以下至喉部密被髯毛;雄蕊与花冠裂片同数,着生于裂片侧基部,花药长圆形,长1.5-2毫米,外露,花丝长1.8-3毫米;花柱外伸,柱头长圆形,二裂,外反,或无花柱,柱头圆锥状,二裂或不裂,直接着生于子房顶或其凹洞内,子房下部与花萼合生,2-4室,每室胚珠1颗;胚珠扁长圆形,着生子房隔侧基部。聚花核果近球形,直径6-10(-15)毫米,熟时橙红至桔红色;核果具分核2-4;分核三棱形,外侧弯拱,具种子1颗。种子与分核同形,角质,无毛。花期4-6月,果期7-8月。
分布(Distribution):产江西、福建、台湾、广东、香港、海南、广西等,生于平原或丘陵的路旁、沟边、灌丛中或平卧于裸地上。菲律宾和越南也有。
用途(Use):据载全株药用,有清热利湿、化痰止咳等药效。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 221, 227   
Morinda parvifolia Bartling ex Candolle, Prodr. 4: 449. 1830.
鸡眼藤 ji yan teng| Rubiaceae  | Morinda
Lianas, climbing, twining, or prostrate; branches surrounded at base by persistent leafless stipules, when young glabrous, puberulent, or densely hispidulous-hirtellous, becoming weakly angled, brown to slightly purplish blue. Leaves opposite; petiole 3-8 mm, glabrous, puberulent, or hispidulous-hirtellous; blade drying papery, on both surfaces matte and yellowish green, yellowish brown, or yellowish gray, obovate, linear-oblanceolate, sublanceolate, obovate-oblanceolate, oblanceolate, or obovate-oblong, 2-5(-7) × 0.3-3 cm, both surfaces glabrous or infrequently moderately to sparsely hirsute or hirtellous, base cuneate to acute, apex acute, obtuse, or rounded and shortly abruptly acuminate or mucronulate; secondary veins 3 or 4(-6) pairs, with pilosulous domatia; stipules fused into a spathe or tube, 2-4 mm, membranous, glabrous, puberulent, or hispidulous, truncate and on each side with 1 or 2, sometimes caducous bristles 0.5-1 mm. Inflorescence terminal; peduncles (2 or)3-9, umbellate to fasciculate, 0.6-2 cm, densely puberulent to hispidulous, as a group often subtended by 1 to several stipuliform bracts; heads 1 per peduncle, subglobose, oblate, conical, or rarely cylindrical, 5-8 mm in diam., 3-15(-17)-flowered, often with 1 to several linear bracts 0.5-1 mm. Flowers fused at base, biology not noted. Calyx puberulent to glabrescent; limb 0.5-0.8 mm, truncate to sinuate or denticulate. Corolla white, campanulate, outside puberulent to glabrous; tube 1.5-2 mm, inside densely villous from middle to throat; lobes 4 or 5, narrowly oblong, 3-4 mm, apically thickened and rostrate. Drupecetum subglobose to oblate, 6-15 mm in diam. Drupes fully fused, orange, subglobose, 4-5 mm. Fl. Apr-Jun, fr. Jun-Aug.
Thickets at roadsides or ditch sides, prostrate on bare land, thickets or forests on hills; sea level to 400 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Jiangxi, Taiwan [Philippines, Vietnam].
Y. Z. Ruan (in FRPS 71(2): 194. 1999) commented that leaf shape in this species varies based to some degree on ecology, with obovate and dimorphic leaves in dry, sunny, bare habitat; linear-oblanceolate or sublanceolate leaves in shady, dry, bare habitat; and obovate-oblanceolate, oblanceolate, or obovate-oblong leaves when climbing on shrubs.
 


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