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耳叶马兜铃Aristolochia tagala

时间:2018-06-29 11:54来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 耳叶马兜铃 学名( Scientific Name ): Aristolochia tagala Champ. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Aristolochia roxburghiana Klotzsch Aristolochia acuminata La






中文名(Chinese Name):耳叶马兜铃
学名(Scientific Name):Aristolochia tagala Champ.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Aristolochia roxburghiana Klotzsch  Aristolochia acuminata Lam.  Aristolochia angulosa Wall. ex Duch.  Aristolochia eschscholtzii Ledeb. ex Duchesne  Aristolochia subsagittata Blanco
科属(Family & Genus):马兜铃科(Aristolochiaceae)马兜铃属
形态特征(Description):草质藤本;根圆柱形,长达一米以上,直径3-5厘米,其间有时具缢纹,外皮灰褐色,内面白色,粉质;茎无毛,干后有明显浅槽纹。叶纸质,卵状心形或长圆状卵形,长8-12(-24)厘米,宽4-14(-24)厘米,顶端短尖或短渐尖,基部深心形,两侧裂片近圆形,下垂,湾缺深1-3厘米,边全缘,两面无毛;基出脉5条,侧脉每边约3条,向上略弯拱,近边缘处互相连接;叶柄长2.5-4(-8)厘米,无毛。总状花序,腋生,长4-8厘米,有花2-3朵;花梗纤细,长约1厘米,基部具小苞片;小苞片卵状披针形,长约3毫米,稍被短柔毛;花被长4-6厘米,基部收狭呈柄状,与子房连接处稍扩大,具关节,其上膨大呈球形,直径5-8毫米,向上急遽收狭成一长管,外面浅绿色,具脉纹,管口扩大呈漏斗状,一侧极短,另一侧延伸成舌片;舌片长圆形,长2-3厘米,宽5-6毫米,顶端圆而具凸尖,初绿色,后暗紫色,具纵脉纹;花药卵形,贴生于合蕊柱上,并单个与其裂片对生;子房圆柱形,长5-6毫米,6棱;合蕊柱顶端6裂;裂片顶端渐尖而钝,向下延伸成6裂的圆环。蒴果倒卵状球形至长圆状倒卵形,长3.5-5厘米,直径2-3.5厘米,具平行纵棱,近基部收狭,成熟时褐色,由基部向上6瓣开裂;果梗长4-6厘米,下垂,常随果分裂成6条;种子近心形或钝三角形,长宽均约8毫米,褐色,扁平,密布疣点,边缘具浅褐色膜翅。花期5-8月,果期10-12月。
分布(Distribution):产于台湾、广东(茂名、陵水、澄迈)、广西(防城、武鸣)、云南(景洪、耿马、景东)。生于海拔60-2000米阔叶林中。印度、越南、马来西亚、印度尼西亚、菲律宾和日本亦产。
用途(Use):根和种子药用。根味微苦、辛,性凉;有清热解毒之效。种子治喉炎。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 5 Page 269
Aristolochia tagala Chamisso, Linnaea. 7: 207. 1832.
耳叶马兜铃 er ye ma dou ling  | Aristolochiaceae  | Aristolochia
Aristolochia roxburghiana Klotzsch.
Herbs twining. Stems terete, slightly furrowed, glabrous. Petiole 2.5-4 cm, glabrous; leaf blade ovate-cordate or oblong-ovate, 8-12(-24) × 4-14(-22) cm, papery, both surfaces glabrous, veins palmate, 3-5 pairs from base, base deeply cordate, lateral lobes subrounded, sinus 1-3 cm deep, apex acute or acuminate. Racemes in axils of leafy shoots, 2- or 3-flowered, 2-6 cm. Pedicels ca. 1 cm, sparsely hairy, glabrescent; bractlets ovate-lanceolate, to ca. 8 mm. Calyx pale yellowish or greenish, throat dark purple, 4-6 cm; tube rectilinear or slightly curved; utricle globose, 5-8 mm in diam., with stipe 1-3 mm; tube 5-10 × 2-3 mm; limb ligulate, oblong, 2-3 × 0.5-0.6 cm, apex obtuse. Anthers ovoid, ca. 1 mm. Gynostemium 6-lobed. Capsule obovoid-globose to ovoid-cylindric, 3.5-5 × 2-3.5 cm, dehiscing acropetally. Seeds triangular to subcordiform, ca. 8 × 8 mm. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Oct-Dec.
Forests, mountain slopes; below 100-2000 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam].
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