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山牵牛Thunbergia grandiflora

时间:2018-06-29 11:47来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
山牵牛,Thunbergia grandiflora,大花老鸦嘴










中文名(Chinese Name):山牵牛
学名(Scientific Name):Thunbergia grandiflora (Rottl. ex Willd.) Roxb.
英文名(English Common Name):Bengal trumpet
别名(Chinese Common Name):大花老鸦嘴
异名(Synonym):Thunbergia chinensis Merr.  Flemingia grandiflora Roxburgh Ex Rottler  
科属(Family & Genus):爵床科(Acanthaceae)山牵牛属
形态特征(Description):攀缘灌木,分枝较多,可攀援很高,匍枝漫爬,小枝条稍4棱形,后逐渐复圆形,初密被柔毛,主节下有黑色巢状腺体及稀疏多细胞长毛。叶具柄,叶柄长达8厘米,被侧生柔毛;叶片卵形、宽卵形至心形,长4-9 (15)厘米,宽3-7.5厘米,先端急尖至锐尖,有时有短尖头或钝,边缘有2(4) -6(8)宽三角形裂片,两面干时棕褐色,背面较浅,上面被柔毛,毛基部常膨大而使叶面呈粗糙状,背面密被柔毛。通常5-7脉。花在叶腋单生或成顶生总状花序,苞片小,卵形,先端具短尖头;花梗长2-4厘米,被短柔毛,花梗上部连同小苞片下部有巢状腺形;小苞片2,长圆卵形,长1.5-3厘米,宽1-2厘米,先端渐尖,外面及内面先端被短柔毛,边缘甚密,内面无毛,远轴面粘合在一起;花冠管长5-7毫米,连同喉白色;喉22-25毫米,自花冠管以上膨大;冠檐蓝紫色,裂片圆形或宽卵形,长2.1-3毫米,先端常微缺;雄蕊4,花丝下面逐渐变宽,长8-10毫米,无毛,花药不外露,药隔突出成一锐尖头,药室不等大,不包括刺长7和9毫米,基部具弯曲长刺,长3和2.5毫米,另2花药仅1药室具刺,长2.5毫米,在缝处有髯毛;花粉粒直径86微米。子房近无毛,花柱无毛,长17-24毫米,柱头近相等,2裂,对折,下方的抱着上方的,不外露。蒴果被短柔毛,带种子部分直径13毫米,高18毫米,喙长20毫米,基部宽7毫米。
分布(Distribution):产广西、广东、海南、福建鼓浪屿。生于山地灌丛。印度及中南半岛也有分布。
用途(Use):世界热带地区广为栽培。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 19 Page 377, 378
Thunbergia grandiflora Roxburgh, Bot. Reg. 6: 495. 1820.
山牵牛 shan qian niu | Acanthaceae| Thunbergia
Thunbergia adenophora W. W. Smith; T. chinensis Merrill; T. lacei Gamble.
Vines to 10 m or longer, woody. Stems 4-angled, sulcate, pubescent. Petiole 1-7 cm, grooved, pubescent; leaf blade ovate to triangular-ovate, 5-10 × 4-8 cm, papery, both surfaces pubescent, palmately 3-7-veined, base subcordate to truncate, margin undulate, irregularly angular on basal half, or rarely entire, apex acuminate to acute. Flowers solitary, paired in leaf axils, or arranged in terminal racemes with 2-4 flowers per node; peduncle 4-7 cm, sulcate, pubescent; rachis pubescent with large cyathiform glands; apical inflorescence bracts subulate to linear-subulate, 2-6 × 1-1.5 mm, pubescent; bracteoles oblong to ovate, 2.5-4 × 1.5-2.2 cm, both surfaces pubescent, 5-7-veined, base truncate, margin entire or ciliate, apex acute with a short mucro. Calyx ca. 2 mm, annular, unlobed, densely pubescent. Corolla bluish with a yellowish throat, 4-6 cm, outside glabrous; tube basally cylindric and ca. 3 mm wide for ca. 7 mm then gradually widened to ca. 5 cm at throat; limb subactinomorphic; lobes ovate, ca. 3 × 2.5 cm. Staminal filaments 7-9 mm; anther thecae pubescent, basally appendaged. Style glabrous; stigma with 2 subequal lobes. Capsule 1.2-1.5 cm, pubescent, basal part 1.3-1.8 cm in diam., beak ca. 2.5 cm. Seeds ovate in outline, compressed, verrucose. Fl. Aug-Jan, fr. Nov-Mar. 2n = 56.
Thickets; 400-1500 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan [India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].
Thunbergia grandiflora is naturalized in tropical regions worldwide.
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