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小叶买麻藤Gnetum parvifolium

时间:2018-06-29 11:55来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
小叶买麻藤,Gnetum parvifolium





中文名(Chinese Name):小叶买麻藤
学名(Scientific Name):Gnetum parvifolium (Warb.) C. Y. Cheng ex Chun
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Gnetum montanum f. parvifolium (Warb.) Markgr.  Gnetum scandens var. parvifolium Warb.  Abutua indica Lour.  Gnemon indica (Lour.) Kuntze  Gnetum indicum (Lour.) Merr.  Gnetum montanum forma megalocarpum Markgr.  Gnetum montanum forma parvifolium (Warb.) Markgr.  Gnetum indicum f. parvifolium (Warb.) Masam.
科属(Family & Genus):买麻藤科Gnetaceae买麻藤属Gnetum
形态特征(Description):缠绕藤本,高4-12米,常较细弱;茎枝圆形,皮土棕色或灰褐色,皮孔常较明显。叶椭圆形、窄长椭圆形或长倒卵形??镏剩??4-10厘米,宽2.5厘米,先端急尖或渐尖而钝,稀钝圆,基部宽楔形或微圆,侧脉细,一般在叶面不甚明显, 在叶背隆起,长短不等,不达叶缘即弯曲前伸,小脉在叶背形成明显细网,网眼间常呈极细的皱突状,叶柄较细短,长5-8(-10)毫米。雄球花序不分枝或一次分枝,分枝三出或成两对,总梗细弱,长5-15毫米,雄球花穗长1.2-2厘米,径2-3.5毫米,具5-10轮环状总苞,每轮总苞内具雄花40-70,雄花基部有不显著的棕色短毛,假花被略成四棱状盾形,基部细长,花丝完全合生,稍伸出假花被,花药2,合生,仅先端稍分离,花穗上端有不育雌花10-12,扁宽三角形;雌球花序多生于老枝上,一次三出分枝,总梗长1.5-2厘米,雌球花穗细长,每轮总苞内有雌花5-8,雌花基部有不甚明显的棕色短毛,珠被管短,先端深裂。雌球花序成熟时长10-15厘米,轴较细,径2-3毫米;成熟种子假种皮红色,长椭圆形或窄矩圆状倒卵圆形,长1.5-2厘米,径约1厘米,先端常有小尖头,种脐近圆形,径约2毫米,干后种子表面常有细纵皱纹,无种柄或近无柄。
分布(Distribution):产于福建、广东、广西及湖南等省区。
用途(Use):广东常用皮部纤维作编制绳索的原料,其质地坚韧,性能良好。种子炒后可食,亦可榨油供食用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 4 Page 104   
Gnetum parvifolium (Warburg) W. C. Cheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 9: 386. 1964.
小叶买麻藤 xiao ye mai ma teng | Gnetaceae  | Gnetum
Gnetum scandens Roxburgh var. parvifolium Warburg, Monsunia 1: 196. 1900; Gnetum indicum (Loureiro) Merrill f. parvifolium (Warburg) Masamune; G. montanum Markgraf f. parvifolium (Warburg) Markgraf.
Vines to 12 m, usually thin and weak; bark pale or grayish brown, lenticels usually relatively conspicuous. Petiole 5-8 (-10) mm; leaf blade elliptic to narrowly so, or obovate, 2.5-10(-13) × 1.5-5 cm, leathery, lateral veins 5-8(-11) on each side, base cuneate to subrounded, apex acute or attenuate, sometimes obtuse. Male inflorescences simple or once branched, branches ternate or in 2 pairs; peduncle slender, 0.5-1.5 cm; male spikes 0.8-1.2(-1.5) cm × 2-3 mm, involucral collars 5-10(-12), each collar with 40-70 flowers plus 10-12 sterile female flowers, basal hairs few, brown, short. Female inflorescences usually borne on old branches, once branched, rarely simple, 10-15 cm in fruit, axis 2-3 mm thick; peduncle 1.5-2 cm; female spikes with involucral collars 6-9 mm apart, nodes each with 5-8 female flowers, basal hairs brown, short. Seeds sessile or nearly so, red, elongate ellipsoid or fusiform to narrowly oblong-obovoid, (1.3-)1.6-2.2 cm × (4-)5-8(-10) mm, 2-3.2 × as long as wide, apex usually with a small, pointed head, outer coat thin, longitudinally striate when dried. Pollination Apr-Jul, seed maturity Jul-Nov.
Forests; 100-1000 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi [Laos, Vietnam]
Female material from Hainan has been named as Gnetum formosum Markgraf (which is known with certainty only from Vietnam). However, it does not differ significantly from plants of G. parvifolium occurring elsewhere in China. Vietnamese material of G. formosum, including the type of that name, seems to differ from G. parvifolium in its larger leaves, longer male spikes, and even more slender fruits, ca. 3 × as long as wide.
The fibers from the bark are used in Guangdong to make ropes; the seeds yield edible oil and are eaten fried.
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