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三角火殃勒Euphorbia antiquorum

时间:2013-09-10 12:23来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):三角火殃勒 学名( Scientific Name ): Euphorbia antiquorum Linn. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 三角霸王鞭、火殃勒 异名( Synonym ): Tithymalus antiquorus (L.) Moench Euphorbi
中文名(Chinese Name):三角火殃勒
学名(Scientific Name):Euphorbia antiquorum Linn.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):三角霸王鞭、火殃勒
异名(Synonym):Tithymalus antiquorus (L.) Moench  Euphorbia antiquorum var. polygona Wight
科属(Family & Genus):大戟科(Euphorbiaceae)大戟属
形态特征(Description):肉质灌木状小乔木,乳汁丰富。茎常三棱状,偶有四棱状并存,高3-5 (8)米,直径5-7厘米,上部多分枝;棱脊3条,薄而隆起,高达1-2厘米,厚3-5毫米,边缘具明显的三角状齿,齿间距离约1厘米;髓三棱状,糠质。叶互生于齿尖,少而稀疏,常生于嫩枝顶部,倒卵形或倒卵状长圆形,长2-5厘米,宽1-2厘米,顶端圆,基部渐狭,全缘,两面无毛;叶脉不明显,肉质;叶柄极短;托叶刺状,长2-5毫米,宿存;苞叶2枚,下部结合,紧贴花序,膜质,与花序近等大。花序单生于叶腋,基部具2-3毫米短柄;总苞阔钟状,高约3毫米,直径约5毫米,边缘5裂,裂片半圆形,边缘具小齿;腺体5,全缘。雄花多数;苞片丝状;雌花1枚,花柄较长,常伸出总苞之外;子房柄基部具3枚退化的花被片;子房三棱状扁球形,光滑无毛;花柱3,分离;柱头2浅裂。蒴果三棱状扁球形,长3.4-4毫米,直径4-5毫米,成熟时分裂为3个分果爿。种子近球状,长与直径约2毫米,褐黄色,平滑;无种阜。花果期全年。
分布(Distribution):原产印度,分布于热带亚洲。
用途(Use):全株入药,具散瘀消炎、清热解毒之效。我国南方常作绿篱,并有逸为野生现象,北方多于温室栽培。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 11 Page 289, 300
Euphorbia antiquorum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 450. 1753.
火殃勒 huo yang le | Euphorbiaceae  | Euphorbia
Trees or shrubs, 3-5(-8) m tall, glabrous except for cyathia. Stems 5-7 cm thick, green, 3(or 4)-ribbed, branching from upper parts; ribs prominent, winglike, up to 1-2 cm wide, 3-5 mm thick, prominently triangular toothed. Leaves alternate, apically clustered, caducous; spine shields small, stipules pricklelike, spines paired, 2-5 mm; petiole very short; leaf blade obovate or obovate-oblong, 2-5 × 1-2 cm, base attenuate, margin entire, apex rounded. Cyathia subterminal, single, peduncle 2-3 mm; cyathophylls as long as involucre, membranous; involucre broadly campanulate, ca. 3 × 5 mm, lobes 5, rounded, denticulate; glands 5, entire. Male flowers many; bracts linear. Female flower: ovary pedicellate, exserted from involucre, smooth and glabrous; styles free; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Capsule 3-lobed, compressed, 3.4-4 × 4-5 mm. Seeds subglobose, ca. 2 × 2 mm, brown-yellow, smooth; caruncle absent. Fl. and fr. all year.
Escaped or naturalized, more widely cultivated. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; wild origin obscure].
Euphorbia antiquorum is the type species for the genus Euphorbia. It is used medicinally.


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